Oral Health and Gut Health

You can’t see them, feel them or taste them, but your mouth is home to entire colonies of microorganisms. While most of these tiny oral bacteria do us no harm, there are other species in the mix that are disease causing and can affect our health and need to be controlled with a healthy diet, good oral care practices and regular visits to your dentist.


Over 700 different strains of bacteria have been detected in the human mouth, though most people are only host to 34 to 72 different varieties. Most of these bacterial species appear to be harmless when it comes to our health. Others, known as probiotics, are beneficial bacteria that aid in the digestion of foods. Other bacteria actually protect our teeth and gums. There are some bacteria, however, that we’d rather do without, since they cause tooth decay and gum disease.

The Two Most Common Harmful Bacteria

Streptococcus mutans is the bacteria you’ve probably heard the most about. It lives in your mouth and feeds on the sugars and starches that you eat. That alone wouldn’t be so bad, but as a by-product of its ravenous appetite, it produces enamel-eroding acids, which make streptococcus mutans the main cause of tooth decay in humans.

Porphyromonas gingivalis is usually not present in a healthy mouth, but when it does appear, it has been strongly linked to periodontitis. Periodontitis is a serious and progressive disease that affects the tissues and the alveolar bone that support the teeth. It is not a disease to be taken lightly. It can cause significant dental pain, and can eventually lead to tooth loss.


Managing Bacteria

Once you’ve got a strain of oral bacteria, you’re not likely to rid yourself of it. The good news is that you can manage and control the bacteria in your mouth with good oral care. Brushing after meals and flossing at least once per day can remove the source of food for harmful bacteria, which can keep them from reproducing in your mouth. Antibacterial mouthwash can also be used to keep your oral flora from taking over. Your diet also plays a role in managing bacteria. Avoiding sugary and starchy foods, especially when you don’t have access to a toothbrush, helps constrain bacterial growth. Also, eating foods that are known to promote healthy bacteria will help you keep your teeth and mouth healthy for a lifetime.


Common Mouth Bacteria

A bacterium that builds up on teeth makes gums prone to infection. Over time, inflammation and the chemicals it releases eat away at the gums and bone structure that hold teeth in place. The result is severe gum disease, known as periodontitis. Poor oral health can lead to digestive issues. More worryingly, bad bacteria present in your saliva travels to your digestive tract when you swallow. This can cause an imbalance in your digestive system and subsequently digestive problems that can cause problems in the rest of your body.


Poor oral health can lead to digestive issues

Digestive problems can take many forms ranging from acid reflux to constipation irritable bowel syndrome. Common causes of digestive issues include not chewing food thoroughly and eating too quickly.  That means the condition of your teeth and gums can have an impact on your digestive health.

The mouth plays an integral role in the digestive process as it’s where physical and chemical digestive processes begin. That means the condition of your teeth and gums can have an impact on your digestive health. It’s also interesting to note that gastrointestinal disorders can similarly affect your oral health.


Healthy teeth and gums help us to chew food properly, which leads to good digestion. Misalignment (very skew teeth), infection and missing teeth are some dental problems that affect our ability to chew food, with possible digestive issues down the line.

How gastrointestinal disorders can affect your teeth and gums

Given that the mouth is the start of our digestive tract, gastrointestinal disorders can contribute to problems in our teeth and gums. Here’s how 3 gastrointestinal disorders can have a negative effect on oral health.

Gastroesophageal reflux disease (Heartburn)

Commonly known as heartburn, gastroesophageal reflux disease causes people to experience a burning feeling in their chest or a bad taste in their mouth. Heartburn causes acids from the stomach to enter the oral cavity and these acids can erode tooth enamel. This is because acids from the stomach are more alkaline than dental enamel. Stomach acid has the potential to cause significant chemical erosion.

images (4)

To counteract heartburn, some people often use antacids and bismuth products which can lead to a harmless and temporary condition called the black hairy tongue. Black hairy tongue gives the tongue on a dark furry appearance. Good oral hygiene and stopping the consumption of antacids and bismuth can reverse this condition.

If you suffer from gastroesophageal reflux disease, let your dentist know. He or she may prescribe an oral rinse or recommend fluoride treatments in order to strengthen your teeth.


Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD)

IBD which includes Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis, is defined as “chronic inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract.” IBD can manifest itself in the oral cavity, particularly in paediatric cases. Some oral signs and symptoms of IBD include mouth sores and infections or bleeding or swollen gums.

Prescriptions for IBD can also affect your dental health some common medication for Crohn’s disease can cause dry mouth, gingivitis and tongue inflammation.

If you have IBD, let your dentist know and also disclose what medications you are taking. It is important so your dentist can take your medical condition into account when administering dental care. This may include measures such as monitoring your blood pressure and glucose levels, plus extra considerations when invasive dental procedures are indicated.

Peptic Ulcers

It is sores that develop in the lining of the stomach, lower oesophagus, or small intestine. If you’re suffering from peptic ulcers, it’s important to note that some of the medications used to treat the condition have side effects that can adversely affect your dental health. You may experience dry mouth, black tongue or a change in taste during the course of treatment.


In such cases, it’s important to inform your dentist about your prescriptions so that he or she can adjust your dental treatment as well as provide tailored advice on how to deal with those side effects. Be sure to also mention any over-the-counter medication that you take as certain drug interactions may worsen the side effects.

An infected tooth can result in the spread of infection to nearby parts of the body such as the jaw, neck, sinuses, and even the brain. Good oral and dental hygiene can help prevent bad breath, tooth decay and gum disease and can help you keep your teeth as you get older. An unhealthy mouth, especially if you have gum disease, may increase your risk of serious health problems such as heart attack, stroke, poorly controlled diabetes and preterm labor.


How does it work?

Though your saliva helps protect you against some invaders, it can’t always do the job. More than 500 species of bacteria thrive in your mouth at any given time. These bacteria constantly form dental plaque a sticky, colourless film that can cling to your teeth and cause health problems.

Your mouth as infection source!!

If you don’t brush and floss regularly to keep your teeth clean, plaque can build up along your gum line, creating an environment for additional bacteria to accumulate in the space between your gums and your teeth. This gum infection is known as gingivitis. Left unchecked, gingivitis can lead to a more serious gum infection called periodontitis. The most severe form of gum infection is called acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis, also known as trench mouth.


Bacteria from your mouth normally don’t enter your bloodstream. However, invasive dental treatments sometimes even just routine brushing and flossing if you have gum disease — can provide a port of entry for these microbes. Medications or treatments that reduce saliva flow and antibiotics that disrupt the normal balance of bacteria in your mouth can also compromise your mouth’s normal defences, allowing these bacteria to enter your bloodstream.

If you have a healthy immune system, the presence of oral bacteria in your bloodstream causes no problems. Your immune system quickly dispenses with them, preventing infection. However, if your immune system is weakened, for example because of a disease or cancer treatment, oral bacteria in your bloodstream (bacteraemia) may cause you to develop an infection in another part of your body. Infective endocarditis, in which oral bacteria enter your bloodstream and stick to the lining of diseased heart valves, is an example of this phenomenon.


  • Poorly controlled diabetes. If you have diabetes, you’re already at increased risk of developing gum disease. But chronic gum disease may, in fact, make diabetes more difficult to control, as well. Infection may cause insulin resistance, which disrupts blood sugar control.
  • Cardiovascular disease. Oral inflammation due to bacteria (gingivitis) may also play a role in clogged arteries and blood clots. It appears that bacteria in the mouth may cause inflammation throughout the body, including the arteries. This inflammation may serve as a base for development of atherosclerotic plaques in the arteries, possibly increasing your risk of a heart attack or stroke. Some research suggests that people with gum infections are also at increased risk of heart attack and stroke. The more severe the infection, the greater the risk appears to be. And gum disease and tooth loss may contribute to plaques in the carotid artery. In one study, 46 percent of participants who’d lost up to nine teeth had carotid artery plaque; among those who’d lost 10 or more teeth, 60 percent of them had such plaque.
  • Preterm birth. Severe gum disease may increase the risk of preterm delivery and giving birth to a low birth weight baby.  The theory is that oral bacteria release toxins, which reach the placenta through the mother’s bloodstream and interfere with the growth and development of the fetus. At the same time, the oral infection causes the mother to produce labour-triggering substances too quickly, potentially triggering premature labour and birth.


5 Tips to Keep Your Oral Flora and Good Mouth Bacteria in Balance

  1. Add more fibre to your diet, including prebiotic.
  2. Eat probiotic fermented foods.
  3. Brush and floss your teeth daily.
  4. If your gums bleed, book a dental appointment right away.
  5. Take an oral probiotic.


Info from the Practice of Dr Emayne en Marais in Pretoria, South Africa.

Pierre van Niekerk ©


Bakteriese Velsiektes (Pyoderma)


Pyoderma is bakteriese infeksies van huisdiere wat op die vel geprojekteer word. Dit kom baie algemeen op honde voor maar is nie algemeen te vinde op katte nie.

  1. Oorsaak

Veltoestande by diere is grootliks ‘n sekondêre probleem, wat beteken dat dit die gevolg is van ‘n ander probleem wat volledig aangespreek moet word om die probleem in sy kern te smoor. Moontlik is die heel belangrikste ‘n gesonde immuniteitstelsel wat deur goeie voeding en higiëne ondersteun word.


  1. Myte as deel van die velprobleem

Myte op huisdiere is ‘n natuurlike toestand. Myte se mees effektiewe behandeling of teenmiddel is ‘n dier se gesonde immuunstelsel wat hul werkinge in geheel onderdruk.

  1. Permanensie van velsiektes

Hierdie veltoestande is selde fataal. Of hul heeltemal gesond gedokter kan word met behandeling en middels, bly ‘n ope vraag. Dat hul beheer en bestuur kan word is so, maar dit vereis dat daar deurlopend hieraan aandag gegee sal word met middels omdat hierdie velstoestande in chroniese permanente veltoestande (pyoderma) ontwikkel.


  1. Begrip

Diere-eienaars en veeartse is soms in konflik met mekaar oor die veltoestande. Die oorsaak is nie werklik met die oog waarneembaar nie en moderne diagnostiese toetse moet gedoen word om die probleem en oorsaak te bepaal. Soms het die eienaar nie die geld om hierdie diagnostiese toetse te laat doen nie en moet die veearts of kundige persoon sy beste doen om die saak aan te spreek.

  1. Tipe veltoestande of Pyodermas

5.1 Aknee: Net soos in die geval van mense kan honde ook aknee kry in hul puberteit in die omgewing van die ken en lippe, op die maag en tussen die bene.

5.2 “Hot spots”: Ook bekend as ekseem, nat kolle, dermatitus of “Pyotraumatiese dermatitus”. Hierdie toestand is ‘n seisoenale probleem en is gewoonlik waarneembaar by diere wanneer dit by nat, klam en warm toestande kom. Bakterie van die omgewing vestig hul in die ideale omstandighede dan ook op die vel. Diere byt, skuur en krap die vel om van die bakteriese nawerking en juk ontslae te raak en versprei so die bakterie verder op die wond van die vel. Dit kan na groot oppervlaktes versprei binne ‘n dag of twee.

5.3 Follikulitus: Ook bekend wanneer ‘n dier se vel voue het en dermatitus of ontsteking daar ontstaan. Nog ‘n naam vir die toestand is “Pustulêre pyoderma”, wat by tye kan opvlam en ontsteek van algemene en/of normale ander bakterie van die vel. Dit is minder dramaties as bogenoemde en ontstaan veral wanneer diere aan mekaar se velle raak, soos by die vulva, die stert en anale area. Sharpei tipe honde met velle in die gesig is gewoonlik die meer vatbare tipe diere. Lewenslange versorging en higiëne is belangrik by hierdie tipe diere.


5.4 Pyoderma (tussen die tone), “Puppy strangles”, drukpunt pyoderma (callus), peri-anale en algemene pyoderma. Al hierdie toestande neem baie lank om te heel en frustreer mens en dier. Die probleem mag herhaaldelik te voorskyn kom nadat dit die eerste keer op ‘n dier waargeneem is. Suksesvolle behandeling beteken nie dat die probleem vir eens en altyd opgelos is nie.

5.5 Seborrhoea is ‘n veltoestand met verskeie vorme. By mense word dit skilfers genoem. Die vel is rooi, met matige inflammasie, olierig, en het ‘n skilferagtige kors. Die toestand word veroorsaak deur oormatige sebum afskeidings (olieklier afskeidings), wat normaalweg sou verhoed dat die vel verdroog en dat daar haarverlies plaasvind. Dit is ‘n lewenslange toestand en vereis honde eienaarskap wat bereid is om te aanvaar.

  1. Oorsake van bakteriese velprobleme en kondisies

Die baie bekende “Stapylococci “ bakterie (Staph bakterie) is van die mees algemene organismes wat gevind word in bakteriese velsiektes of kondisies. Gelukkig is hierdie siektetoestand nie oordraagbaar na mense toe nie


7. Voorkoming is beter as beheer

  1. Die meeste velverwante probleme is, soos genoem, sekondêr. Dit beteken dat dit dalk nooit sou ontstaan het as siekteverwante organismes soos vlooie, bosluise, groepe wurms, virussiektes en bakteriese omstandighede voorkomend bestuur is nie.
  2. Bydraend tot dit kan daar wel genetiese faktore wees wat ‘n rol speel, hormonale disfunksies of abnormaliteite in die immuunsisteem. Wanneer bakteriese infeksies opduik, speel kundige persone soos jou veearts wat verskeie toetse kan uitvoer, ‘n belangrike rol in die beheer en bestuur daarvan.
  3. Die belangrikste hiervan is om vas te stel wat hierdie velreaksies veroorsaak. Dit kan tekorte in minerale en vitamienes wees soos sink, kos wat nie deur die hond se dermkanale opgeneem word nie en bloot uitgeskei word wat veroorsaak dat die hond tegnies honger ly en sy immuunsisteem onder druk kom, gluten reaksies van koring en meelprodukte, kleurstowwe, preserveermiddels, vlooie, wurms, materiale en om die dier daarvan te skei.
  4. Laastens, goeie higiëne met produkte wat veilig vir diere en hoogs effektief teen hul kieme is, is die antwoord. Nie boererate en selfaangemaakte brousels nie. Dit verhard net die weerstandigheid van die kieme wat mens wil beheer.


Pierre van Niekerk © 2018

Common Priobiotic Strains and their Benefits


The information in this document is for educational and general purposes only and should not be construed as medical advice or a substitute for medical treatment. Readers should always consult appropriate and qualified health or medical professionals about specific medical problems and issues relating to personal wellbeing.

The author does not accept any responsibility for harm or loss which may result from failure to consult with the appropriate health authorities, and readers assume the risk of any such injuries that may arise from these circumstances.

Read Final Note as well…

32913826_1944505335589045_697537967731769344_n (1)

Probiotic Strains and Their Benefits

  1. Lactobacillus plantarum
    • Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS)
    • Cold and flu
    • Other immune system deficiencies

This bacterium helps you fight against getting sick by defending your system from invading viruses, moulds, toxins, etc.


  1. Lactobacillus rhamnosus
    • Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS)
    • Diarrhea
    • Lactose intolerance
    • Urinary tract infections
    • Other intestinal tract illnesses including stomach ulcers.

This strain of probiotic is known for its ability to survive through the harsh gastric acid and bile of the stomach – to make it through to the intestine and compete against bad bacteria.

It enhances the strength of your immune system by stimulating mucous production, inhibiting the growth of intestinal pathogens, and reducing inflammation in the intestines.


  1. Bifidobacterium bifidum
    • Constipation
    • Allergy symptoms
    • Digestive issues
    • Lactose intolerance

In addition to keeping your colon healthy and increasing your ability to absorb important nutrients, BB also reduces intestinal inflammation and competes with pathogens for adhesion to the intestinal cells to help make your immune system stronger. This is one of the four good bacteria species typically found in infants.


  1. Bifidobacterium infantis
    • Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS)
    • Gastroenteritis
    • Defends against pathogens such as Salmonella

A probiotic bacterium common in breast-fed infants, but which can also be found in teens and adults. It is known to successfully survive the trip through the stomach acids and bile and adhere to the intestinal tissues where it produces acetic acid and bacterocinlike substances, and some strains even produce B-vitamins such as thiamine, nicotinic acid, and folate. This is one of the four good bacteria species typically found in infants.


  1. Bidifobacterium longum
    • Ulcerative colitis
    • Intestinal inflammation
    • Vaginal flora balance
    • Constipation
    • Crohn’s disease
    • High cholesterol
    • Colon cancer

Like most strains, they are still discovering all the positive benefits of this bacteria. They do know that it will strengthen your immune system, improve your overall gut health, and can help with re-establishing beneficial vaginal flora.

Studies have led researchers to believe that B. longum may minimize the effects of or prevent a full range of other ailments and diseases.


  1. Lactobacillus reuteri
    • Eczema
    • Colic
    • Diarrhea
    • Rotavirus
    • Workplace sicknesses
    • Dental health issues
    • Female Urogenital Tract Infections
    • Constipation

These bacteria produce a unique broad-spectrum antibiotic substance called reuterin, which has been found to inhibit the growth of some harmful bacteria, along with yeasts, fungi, and protozoa, while keeping normal gut flora intact. In addition, reuterin has also been shown to suppress infections related to H. pylori (linked to peptic ulcers and gastric cancer). It is found naturally in some milk and meat products.


  1. Lactobacillus acidophilus
  • Acute, infectious diarrhea
  • Vaginal infections
  • Urinary tract infections

One of the most popular lactic bacteria, Lacidophilus is commonly used in foods such as yogurt and other dairy products. It works very well in combination with other probiotics to reduce the toxic effects of mould and yeast growth, and can prevent parasite growth in your intestinal tract.


  1. Lactobacillus casei
  • Constipation
  • Lactose intolerance
  • Crohn’s disease
  • Diarrhea

Casei occurs naturally in both your mouth and intestines, and helps support a healthy immune system. It can also reduce the rate and risk of bacterial infections. It has also been administered safely and with positive results to critically ill children suffering from diarrhea.


9. Lactobacillus helveticus

  • Bone mineral density
  • Blood pressure
  • Improved sleep
  • Stress relief
  • Calcium absorption
  • Diarrhea
  • Lactose intolerance
  • Allergies Found in many cheeses.

This lactic acid producing bacteria boasts a variety of health benefits, ranging from stimulating the immune and digestive systems to increasing bone density in post-menopausal women, to reducing arterial stiffness and blood pressure. It can also improve health by increasing the bioavailability of the nutrients in the body.


  1. Lactobacillus salivarius
  • Gum sensitivity
  • Plaque
  • Tooth and gum health
  • Chronic bad breath
  • Ulcers

In addition to the wide range of proven dental health benefits, L. salivarius is currently being tested and is believed to have the potential to improve immune system responses to colitis and septic shock.


  1. Pediococcus acidilactici
  • Stress relief
  • Digestive issues
  • Diarrhea
  • Constipation
  • Multiple Sclerosis relief

This bacterium can balance the bacteria in your gut to enhance your overall health and promote a healthier inflammatory response in the intestines. It can reduce and prevent unhealthy bacteria and parasites—like salmonella and E. coli from entering your intestinal tract. It is even believed that it can provide a supportive role in patients who are suffering from Multiple Sclerosis.


  1. Streptococcus thermophilus
  • Lactose intolerance
  • Colic
  • Digestive issues
  • Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS)
  • Diarrhea
  • Dermatitis
  • Ulcers

One of the two original strains used to make yogurt, this probiotic is still one of the most effective strains for boosting your immune system and improving your digestive health. It is currently being tested for limitless applications, especially for treating the causes and symptoms of cancer.

Pierre van Niekerk ©

Final Note

 Probiotic strains are constantly being tested to determine efficacy and indications in both humans and animals. The indications listed here are simply a representation of what the most recent testing has shown to be the likely benefits for each strain. There are no guarantees of efficacy for any probiotic ingredients.

The material and opinions expressed in this document are believed to be accurate based on the best judgment available to the author.

Whilst the information in this document is regularly updated and every attempt is made to ensure that the material is accurate, medical research is being continually published and thus some information may be out of date and/or may contain inaccuracies and typographical errors.

The following sources were consulted in the preparation of this list: https://medlineplus.gov, www.probiotics.org , www.mayoclinic.org, www.probioticsdb.com , and www.probiotics-lovethatbug.com

Probiotika: 1

images (1)

Die kos wat ons eet, moet ten doel hê om al die belangrike voedingstowwe te bevat om die liggaam in sy totaliteit te voed. Voeding word beskou as die bron en die boustene om die liggaam energie te verskaf, liggaamselle en organe te voed, herstel te laat plaasvind en die immuunsisteem te voed om sy werk te doen.


Voedsel wat ingeneem word, bestaan uit ‘n verskeidenheid molekules wat chemies en fisies aan mekaar verbind is. Die vertering en afbreek (verrotting) van voedsel in die spysverteringskanaal het ten doel om hierdie chemiese en fisiese verbindings af te breek in individuele voedingstowwe in so ‘n vorm dat die liggaam die verskillend nutriënte dit kan opneem.


Eenvoudig gestel beteken spysvertering dat voedsel afgebreek word tot in molekulêre vorms tot waar die liggaam instaat is om dit as voedsel op te neem.



Die meganika van die spysverteringstel, alhoewel eenvoudig verduideik, is in wese baie kompleks.

Digestive System Of Female Human The Digestive System - Biology Of Humans

Vertering vind in die spysverteringskanaal plaas. Die spysverteringskanaal strek van die mond, die slukderm, die maag, deur die dermkanale tot by die anus. Wat ook al geëet word, beweeg met prosesse deur die stelsel tot waar dit deur en in die dermkanaal opgeneem word. ‘n Lengte van ongeveer 9 meter, van die slukderm (esophagus) tot die anus.


Die dermkanaal dien as skild.

Die kos wat ingeneem word, moet eers deur die spysverteringskanaal opgebreek word in molekules voordat dit deur die dermkanaal opgeneem kan word. Kos wat dus ingeneem word, kan met die “skild” van die dermkanaal beskou word as nog “buite” die liggaam.



Deel van die spysverteringsproses is die selektiewe deurlaat van afgebreekte voedingstowwe deur die selwande van die dermkanaal. Vandaar beweeg dit deur die bloedstroom na alle selle van die liggaam, organe om orgaanfunksies te verseker, energie te verskaf, brein-en hormoonfunksies te stimuleer.


Een funksie wat beklemtoon kan word, is die herstel en vervanging van beseerde spiere en afgestorwe selle in die liggaam wat belangrike funksies vervul. As voorbeeld kan die vervanging van lewerselle genoem word, asook die vel, wat twee van die grootste organe in die liggaam is.


Die verteringsproses

Voedsel se molekulêre strukture vir opname deur die dermkanaal verskil in grootes en kom in verskillende strukture, verbindings en vorms voor.


‘n Eenvoudige verduideliking sou wees om in jou geestesoog ‘n klomp kettings van verskillende grotes en lengtes en vorms opgerol in chemiese verbindings wat die kettings vashou in ‘n bondel te sien.

images (1)

Spysvertering sou dan die proses wees om in menslike prosesse die bondel opgerolde ketting met meganiese en chemiese prosesse te ontrafel en oop te ontvou. Te ontrafel dat die molekulêre strukture alleen, enkel en apart van mekaar staan sodat dit opgeneem kan word.


Die mens sou in sy spsyverteringstelsel die ketting kou in stukke, meng met alkaliese speeksel, sluk en afbreek in die maag met swembadsuur in die maag, dan in die dermkanaal verder met ensieme opbreek, wat dan uiteindelik in ‘n nuwe ketting in ‘n nuwe vorm as boustene vir die liggaam verskyn.


Voedselsoorte het verskillende tipe molekules

Voedselstrukture bestaan uit verskillende komplekse molekules en ook soorte. Dit bestaan uit die groot molekules soos proteienes, stysels, middelgroote molekules soos vette en dan baie kleiner molekules soos vitamienes, minerale, suikers en phytonutriënte (plante se voedingstowwe), wat belangrike faktore van beskerming bevat vir die liggaam.


Die punt is, die liggaam vir goeie gesondheid al hierdie komplekse voedselstrukture se voedingstowwe nodig. Elke voedselsoort en elke molekule het eie unieke wyses en maniere waarop dit opgebreek moet word. voordat dit as voedsel of nutriënt deur die dermkanaal opgeneem kan word.



Die inname van proteiene, wat afgebreek word in die dermkanaal deur ensieme in aminosure, verskaf belangrike boustene in die liggaam se voortdurende proses van groei en herstel van die liggaam.


Die oorgrote meerderheid van die liggaam se strukturêle weefsel bestaan uit proteiene. Dit is die skelet, senings en ook weefsel. Vir die rede is die innaame van genoegsame hoeveelhede proteien vir hul gesondheid ‘n belangrike faktor. Proteiene is betrokke by  byna elke funksie van die liggaam.

Acid protection of probiotic bacteria via capsules


Ensieme is ook proteiene. Ensieme vervul feitlik elke funksie in die liggaam soos die herstel van beskadigde weefsel en ook die verwydering daarvan. Ensieme is ook boodskappers in die liggaam. Dit vervoer hormone van een plek na ‘n ander en is aktief in nodige selkommunikasie tussen selle van die liggaam se DNA.

Die liggaam het as lewende organisme nodig om voortdurend nuwe proteiene te vorm om uitgediende ensieme te vervang. Dit het ook die vorming van nuwe proteiene nodig om verouderde selle, beskadigde selle en beserings te heel.

Optimale gesondheid vereis dus ‘n aaneenlopende proses van proteienvorming en proteienvervanging. Proteiene word saamgestel deur kleiner molekules wat aminosure genoem word. Op molekulêre vlak kan een proteien opgebreek word in n string van aminosure wat wissel van so klein as 200 aminosure op ‘n string, tot 5000 daarvan.

Die maak van proteiene in die liggaam

Om ou en afgeleefde selle in die liggaam te vervang met nuwe selle, moet die liggaam aminosure gebruik as boublokke van die proteiene wat opgeneem word in die diëet. Wanneer proteien van verskillende bronne ingeneem word, moet die liggaam die groot aminosuurstringe of verbindigs neem en afbreek in aminosure, of peptides.


Aminosure, ook genoem petides, moet in een tot twee molekules (dipeptides) afgebreek word om deur die liggaam opgeneem te kan word.


Die liggaam vervaarding ensieme wat protease genoem word wat proteiene wat ingeneem word afbreek in aminosure. Proteiene verloor sy struktuur in die maag met behulp van maagsuur en pepsien.

Vandaar beweeg die afgebreekte proteienbron deur die maagklep in die dunderm in (duedenum), waar nog ensieme en of protease plaasvind. Aminosure en dipeptides word in hierdie vorm in middelderms of jejenum opgeneem.


Pierre van Niekerk ©

Pierre@ D: Bio Enzymes

Natural Biological Products in Agricultural Waste Treatment


There is a sincere need and demand for safe and natural products to solve and deal with stenches and animal waste in animal shelters, chicken houses, piggeries, cattle kraals, slaughter houses and dairies. In household’s urine stenches or often a problem, where children are involved and general smell and hygiene is important.
Many of the shelve and household chemicals are harmful. Not only to the environment, but to man and animal in general causing skin problems, asthmatic conditions and allergies. Typical non-specific household cleaning products are harsh and contains harmful corrosive substances. Not safe and in effect dangerous to children and to pets.

When spilled, harsh chemicals can destroy the balance of the natural biotic environment, as well as good bacteria and insects of value to our surroundings and environment.

Thus, the need and quest for effective, biological safe and natural products is the quest for most informed people. Three words should be associated with Biological products.

The product must be safe, pure and effective.
Per Biological definition it would mean the following;
1. Safety
Relatively free from harmful effects and or substances, direct or indirect, when a product is sensibly administered.
2. Pure
Purity means relative freedom from unimportant matter in the finished product. Pure and purity means free from residue, fillers or moisture and or unstable substances.

3. Effective
Effective refers to the specific ability or capacity of the biological product, and best as indicated by appropriate laboratory tests, to explain and produce a given result.
Natural bacteria as a Bio degradation agent.

Bio-Enzymes are a biological formulation of multi-purpose bacteria, formulated to have a multi- purpose and broad range of natural degradation abilities and functions. In their natural environment, bacteria produce hundreds of enzymes in response to the organics present in their environment.

This group of Bio-Enzymes produce extracellular enzymes with the intention to break down proteins, starches, fats, oils, greases and toilet tissue into smaller particles, outside the bacterial cell. The bacteria then transport the smaller particles across their cell membrane for use as an energy source and for generating new cellular components.

Why is this an efficient method in stench and waste control?
Since this group of selected bacteria detect organics material as a potential food source, they produce specific enzymes to breakdown the organics present. In areas as mentioned with urine and organic waste, this selected consortium of bacteria will produce key extracellular enzymes including amylase, cellulase, lipase and protease.

This Biological method is a focused, complete and very efficient natural system, leaving no harmful waste to the environment. Many different enzymes are required to break a substrate (Urine, faeces, blood, etc.,) completely.

Extreme functionality
This group of Bio Enzymes can be therefore successfully used for the maintenance and functional working order of household drain lines, slaughter houses, French drains, grease traps, improving septic tanks, nutrient rich waste environments such as dairies, butcheries.

Although many bacteria can utilize these organics as food sources, it is this group of Bacillus bacteria with the rapid production of key enzymes that provide the most dramatic effects in waste degradation, odour control in piggeries, pens, kraals, shelters, toilets, latrines and slaughter houses. Extremely safe and effective in with in-house stenches and odours and stenches caused by pets.

Safety of Pierre@ D Bio-Enzymes
Pierre@ D contains a blend of safe Bacillus microorganisms. Toxicity studies done by an independent laboratory shows that Pierre @ D Bio-Enzyme consortium of microorganisms has no acute oral toxicity, no acute dermal toxicity, and no acute inhalation toxicity at maximal test dose.

Acute dermal irritation and acute eye irritation studies classify Pierre@ D Bio-Enzymes as non-irritating it does not elicit a skin sensitization reaction.

Bio Enzyme Product Data Sheet

1. Drain lines and grease traps – degrades and eliminates organics found in drain lines and grease traps. Regular addition of PIERRE @ D BIO ENZYME maintains a cleaner and odour-free system.

2. Septic and waste treatment – maintains effective activity in septic systems, eliminating the need for excessive pumping.

3. Eliminates odours caused by incomplete digestion of malodorous volatile fatty acids.

4. Bathroom cleaning and odour control: penetrates cracks, crevices and pores of surfaces where organics accumulate, removing the organics leaving a visually cleaner surface.

5. Provides long term odour control by removing the organics that cause odours and prevents their return.

1. A stable consortium of safe Bacillus spores
2. Production of multiple enzymes providing a wide range of degradation capabilities
3. A synergistic blend that works in concert to provide superior performance across multiple applications
4. Excretion of high levels of amylase, cellulase, lipase and protease enzymes
5. Ability to work under aerobic and anaerobic conditions
6. Single product simplicity for multi-application flexibility

Product Characteristics
1. Bacteria Counts: 5.4 X 107 cfu/ml
2. Bacteria Type: Blend of Bacillus Spores
3. Salmonella: Not detected
4. Appearance: Creamy white
5. Fragrance: Pleasantly perfumed
6. Shelf-life: One year; maximum loss of 1.0 log at recommended storage conditions

Dose Rates: (Follow dilution rate)
PIERRE @ D BIO ENZYME can be diluted to the following ratio;

1. 1:9 (One-part BE (BIO ENZYME) and 9 parts of water. The blend must be used on the day and any reaming liquid should be discarded.

Reduction of high solids and crusting of waste: liquefaction and cleaning of cowsheds, piggeries, poultry farms etc.) Area Initial Dose Rate Regular Maintenance Rate Method of


General aid to the processing process.
Area Initial Dose Rate Regular Maintenance Rate Method of Application
Trickling filters

Anaerobic digesters Retention Ponds Activated sludge 1 kg/ 4.5 million liter’s

500g/ 45 000 liter’s 500g/4.5 million liters per week
Repeat for 3 days then per week Add to primary settling tank
Add to inflow pipe

For easier handling of high protein/fats in concentrated areas.

Reducing blockage of drains, pipes: treatment of effluent not on main drainage: reduction of odours.


Is designed as a bio-technical aid to treatment of organic waste material offering the following advantages:
1. Liquefaction & reduction of solids
2. Reduction of odour
3. Easier disposal of waste
4. Aids general cleaning of soiled areas
5. The safety in operation of effluent systems offers a viable alternative to current processing techniques using a bio-technical approach.

How does PIERRE @ D BIO ENZYME Liquid out-perform various harmful pathogens?

The SABS Standard requires a 5-minute killing time for the most common hygiene microorganisms such as S. aureus, E. coli and P. aeruginosa.

From a hygiene point of view, especially where pets and farm animal’s health or zoonotic diseases are at stake, hygiene factors are of great importance and a critical management matter. Such is products used in creating a hygienic environment.

The responsible value of a healthy and hygienic environment would be to sanitize the working environment effectively before continue working. It could be food preparation, preparing feeding for dairy calves, chicken houses, bird cages, shelters, restaurants, home cooking and food preparation.

The value could also be the sanitizing of public areas, where hygiene factors such as toilets or urinals or cleaning hard surfaces in shops the public use. The same principles and values and codes reign in households, public schools, offices and other public areas.

Mode of Function of Bacillus bacteria as Bio-Enzymes
In contrast to the SABS standard, being the quickest time a sanitizer (QAC- based) is supposed to kill, Bacillus-containing sanitizers such as the Pierre @ D Bio-Enzymes operate in a different mode. Bio-Enzymes are live bacteria that needs to compete with other microorganisms for a food sources. Hence the longer contact time required by these bacteria to kill its competitors.

1. The pattern that bacillus bacteria uses, (as seen in the study), is to kill or out compete the other bacteria. The answer lies in its morphological structure. Where Bacillus bacteria grows, other microorganisms will move away from that specific waste food source.

2. Bacillus bacteria have a larger morphological structure than other organisms. It creates a zone of inhibition, preventing growth of other microorganisms (known as morphological inhibition).

3. This ensures fewer numbers of other microorganisms surviving, but a rapid growth of bacillus bacteria absorbing waste product such as sewerage, milk spills, waste pills, grease traps etc.

Important knowledge to cfu Calculation
For Bio Enzymes to be most effective and efficient, it is always important to know the cfu value of any biological product that has been diluted. Or in its concentrated form. This is to know if the product you have diluted has sufficient active ingredient to fulfil the desired outcome in waste or stench management:

The ready to use (diluted) product PIERRE @ D BIO ENZYME following thee analyses within SAP – shelf life is typically one year. The cfu count on the diluted product is calculated on a mass balance as follows:

1. Let a = Volume of Bio Enzyme
2. And the concentration = 10 X FF
3. Let a = 1 gallon
4. Let b = volume of water = 9 gallons
5. Let c = volume of Bio Enzyme
6. And a + b = c
7. c = 10 gallons

Doing a mass balance on the spore count:
1. There are 2 x 1012 cfu in 1-gallon Bio Enzyme 10 XFF
2. Count of spores in c = unknown = z Then 2 x 1012a + 0b = zc
3. Then [(2 x 1012 x 1)/10] = [(z x 10)/10]
4. 2 x 1011 cfu/gallon of PIERRE @ D BIO ENZYME

Converting from gallons to liters
2 x 1011 spores 1 gallon
1 gallon 3.8 liters

= 5.2 x 1010 cfu/liter of PIERRE @ D BIO ENZYME
Or 52 billion CFU/liter

The information contained in this leaflet is to the best of our knowledge, true & accurate, but any recommendations or suggestions which may be made are without guarantee since the conditions of use are beyond our control. No license or immunity under any patents is granted or implied.

SOÖNOSES 5: Ringwurm of Omlope


 Omlope of ringwurm: Behandeling
Die diagnose van ‘n omloop of ringwurm moet altyd eers bevestig word. Dit word by die veearts onder ‘n lig bevestig en dit is ‘n soonotiese siekte, wat dus van die mens na die dier en ook omgekeer oorgedra word.

Omlope of ringwurm het ‘n kenmerke aard deurdat dit gewoonlik rond voorkom op die vel van ‘n dier, met ‘n rooierige randjie. Jy sal vind dat die vel in die middle redelik normaal voorkom. Die ringwurmletsels brei van die punt van besmetting uit na sy direkte omgewing en kruip dus uit om groter te word. Dit brei ook uit en vermeerder. Dit moet aanvaar word dat dit algemeen in die omgewing is.

Ketazol salf kan by jou apteker gekry word en dit maak die swam vir alle praktiese doeleindes dadelik “dood”. Dit word aanbeveel dat jy dit so tussen 10-14 dae in die wond in sal vryf. Indien die probleem nie opklaar nie of vererger, gaan sien maar liewer jou veearts of dokter. Daar is ander veltoestande, soos in een van die Files hierbo beskrywe, wat ook soos ‘n omloop kan lykmaat ‘n ander veltoestand is, soos ekseem en psoriase.

Omlope word veral in kinders gesien as gevolg van kontak met besmette diere. Spore van hierdie swaminfeksie kan selfs vir jare oorleef. Omlope is ‘n oppervlakkige veltoestand van diere wat mense kan aansteek.Verskeie swamme, Microsporum spp., Trichophyton spp. en Epidermophyton floccosum val die keratienlae (die hoofproteïen van die hare, naels en vel) van mens en dier aan.

Die letsel in mense is gewoonlik rond. In die middel is dit skilferig met korserigheid aan die kante met rooierige inflammasie. Letsels kom gewoonlik op die arms, bene, gesig en kopvel voor. In honde en katte kom die letsels gewoonlik op die vel van die pote en kop voor. In katte kom daar dikwels ‘n subkliniese infeksie voor waar geen tekens van omlope gesien word nie. Daar word dan verkeerdelik deur die eienaar aangeneem dat die kat vry van infeksie is.

Katte kan ook draers wees van omloop en sodoende mense aansteek sonder dat hulle self letsels het. Gaan na u dokter en veearts om ‘n diagnose te maak en behandeling voor te skryf.

Omlope word veral in kinders gesien as gevolg van kontak met besmette diere. Spore van hierdie swaminfeksie kan selfs vir jare oorleef. Omlope is ‘n oppervlakkige veltoestand van diere wat mense kan aansteek. Verskeie swamme – Microsporum spp., Trichophyton spp. en Epidermophyton floccosum val die keratienlae (die hoofproteïen van die hare, naels en vel) van mens en dier aan.

Die letsel in mense is gewoonlik rond. In die middel is dit skilferig met korserigheid aan die kante met rooierige inflammasie. Letsels kom gewoonlik op die arms, bene, gesig en kopvel voor. In honde en katte kom die letsels gewoonlik op die vel van die pote en kop voor.

In katte kom daar dikwels ‘n subkliniese infeksie voor waar geen tekens van omlope gesien word nie. Daar word dan verkeerdelik deur die eienaar aangeneem dat die kat vry van infeksie is. Katte kan ook draers wees van omlope en sodoende mense aansteek sonder dat hulle self letsels het.

Gaan na u dokter en veearts om ‘n diagnose te maak en behandeling voor te skryf.

Voorkoming en beheer
1. Isoleer en behandel besmette diere, veral diere wat in noue kontak met mense is.
2. Vernietig beddegoed van besmette diere om dié as bron van besmetting te verwyder.
3. Steriliseer dikwels borsels en kamme wat u vir u diere gebruik.
4. Verhoog u diere se gesondheidstatus deur vir hulle goeie gebalanseerde kos, wat ook vitamien A bevat, te gee.

Van den Heever, L.W. en Du Preez, J.H. 1992 Soönoses: Dieresiektes en die mens. Butterworths. ISBN 0409 11101 5.

Pierre van Niekerk © 2015