MASTITIS: MELKKLIERE van TROETELDIERE

Vele vrae onstaan rakende troeteldiere wat mastitus ontwikkel. By plaasdiere is dit ‘n algemene voorkoms, veral daar waar vlieë nie onder beheer gebring word by varke en melkbeeste nie.

Vroue veral is bekend met ontsteking in die melkkliere van die bors. Die waarheid is, mans kan ook mastitus ontwikkel. So ook babas.

2- Mastitis of infants:

Dit is normaal om slegs een druppel melk uit ‘n tepel te kry.  Dit mag nodig wees om tepels vir ‘n minuut of wat saggies te stimuleer sodat die melk kan sak (sakrefleks kan intree).  Indien daar nie genoeg melk vir die klein hondjies is nie, sal hulle aanhoudend huil en nie so vinnig groei nie.

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Indien mastitis teenwoordig is, sal die uier geswel, rooi en pynlik wees en die teef sal depressief wees.  Sy sal waarskynlik ook ophou eet.  Die klein hondjies sal verhonger en waarskynlik aanhoudend kerm.

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Mastitis kan in slegs een of in verskeie melkkliere voorkom.  Indien daar vermoed word dat mastitis teenwoordig is, moet die teef onmiddellik by ‘n veearts uitkom indien enigsins moontlik.  Mastitis kan tot septiese skok en vrekte lei indien dit nie behandel word nie.  Faktore wat tot mastitis kan aanleiding gee is vlieë, trauma, swak higiëniese omgewing en ook besmette sanitêre toestande.

Mastitis en melkkoors – rooi en harde tepels is waarskynlik die bekendste aanduiding dat ‘n dier melkkoors of mastitis het.

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Vrektes van klein hondjies 

  1. Eerste week: Vrektes van klein hondjies tot en met speenouderdom wissel tussen 10% tot 30% en meer as 65%. Van die vrektes kom gewoonlik by geboorte voor asook in die eerste week na geboorte.

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  1. Tweede en derde week: In hierdie tydperk kan hulle nog nie hul liggaamstemperatuur beheer nie. Dit is dus vir die eienaar baie om hul omgewings se temperatuur te beheer.

Tekens van ‘n gesonde klein hondjie

  • Raak aan die slaap as hul klaar gedrink het
  • Huil nie vir langer as 10 minute op ‘n slag nie
  • Gaap wanneer hulle wakker word
  • Het ‘n vol magie wat nie opgeblaas is nie
  • Het ‘n sterk suigaksie
  • Het goeie spiertonus, waarin Mangaan (Mn) vanuit die melk van die ma belangrik is.

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Bloedkalsium: Mastitis by lakterende tewe

By kleiner rasse kom melkkoors algemeen voor nadat hul ‘n werpsel gehad het.  Melkkoors kan binne ure noodlottig wees en moet dus altyd as ‘n noodgeval beskou word.  Melkkoors kom voor wanneer die bloedkalsium skielik daal in lakterende tefies.  Kleiner rasse is veral sensitief.  Kan baie vinnig tot die hond se dood lei weens die effek wat bloedkalsiumtekorte het op die hartspier.  In die meeste gevalle is daar wel tyd om by die veearts uit te kom.

Kliniese tekens

  • Die eerste tekens wat gesien word is spiere wat tril en die teef wat lyk of sy koud kry en bewe.
  • In werklikheid is die hond besig om stuipe te kry weens die kalsiumtekort.
  • Die asem begin jaag en dit blyk dat sy baie warm kry.
  • As geen behandeling toegepas word nie, begin sy stuipe kry. Liggaamspiere trek krampagtig saam en die teef haal met ‘n oop bek vinnig en vlak asem.
  • Die bene word styf en ruk en ‘n hoë koors ontwikkel as gevolg van die spiersaamtrekkings. By hierdie punt is ‘n bekwame veearts baie nodig.

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Veearts se optrede

Binne-aarse toediening kalsium.  Ongelukkig kan selfs die binneaarse toediening van kalsium noodlottig wees en soms verkies die veearts om die middel binnespiers te spuit.  Soms is dit nodig om die tefie meer as een keer op agtereenvolgende dae in te spuit.  Dit is raadsaam om dan die kleintjies self te voer en die teef te laat opdroog.

NOODBEHANDELING

Tekens

  • Warm, harde, rooi spene
  • Vinnige asemhaling
  • Dier kry baie warm, maar wil haarself toemaak
  • Braking

Noodbehandeling moet so spoedig as moontlik toegepas word, spiere trek binne sekondes styf waar die koors vinnig styg en dan slegs deur ‘n veearts behandel kan word.

  • Sit ‘n waaier direk op die teef, met n nat handdoek bo-oor haar,
  • Spons met ‘n yskoue lap deur tussen die spene, op die maag , tussen bene en geslagsdele saggies te masseer.
  • Dien ook koue agter die nek en kop toe.
  • As die hond nie vinnig genoeg afkoel nie, tap n koue bad water in en spons die dier in die bad af met n spons.
  • Begin by maag gedeelte en beweeg op.
  • Moet nooit ‘n dier alleen laat binne bad of op ‘n bed nie, veral as haar spiere begin styf trek, kan sy val, versuip of dit kan tot nog beserings lei.
  • Gee vir haar onmiddellik ‘n teelepel Cani-Cal in, dit is in poeier vorm wat met maalvleis in ‘n balletjie gevorm kan word.

By stabilisering

  • As spene steeds geswel en of rooi en warm is, moet daar 2 maal per dag koue kompressie toegepas word op die tieties.
  • Gebruik Cani – Cal in – vir n week. Niks langer nie.  Dit is n kalsium aanvulling wat melkproduksie stimuleer.
  • Babahondjies moet met die hand groot gemaak word op die P@D Faceboekblad se resep.
  • Die melk moet so spoedig as moontlik opgedroog word by die teef. Hoe langer die babas aan die ma drink, hoe langer gaan sy melk vervaardig wat weer melkkoors tot gevolg het.

Hoe om melk op te klaar 

Verwyder kos vir haar – gee die minimum kos sodat die ligaam nie langer melk produseer nie maar voorsien vloeistowwe.

Pierre van Niekerk © 2017

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Blommetjie Mieks 1

Die huidige Blommetjie Mieks, asook die verbeterde een wat hopelik vroeg in 2019 vrygestel gaan word, is ‘n 100% natuurlike blomolie mengsel van natuurlike chrysantium plante (wat in die volksmond as asters en soms asNamakwalandse daisies beskrywe word.

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Die plantgroepe in die crysantium familie word eers gedroog en vandaar word die olie uit die blom onttrek. Die plante wat hiervoor gekies word, is die Chrysanthemum cinerariifolium en Chrysanthemum coccineum. Die toksisiteit van die plante se olie verhoog namate die plante hoër geplant word op hoogte van seespieël.

Die aktief in die olie staan bekend as “Pyrethrum.” Die olie word dan in verskeie middels verwerk om hoogs suksesvolle natuurlike vlieg en insekbeheer te bewerkstellig.

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Vrystelling in sommige lande

Natuurlike pyrehrum het ‘n baie lae toksisiteit. Word in lande soos Australië en Swede vrygestel van die term wat dit as giftig vir mens en dier beskrywe.

Pyrethrum word wêreldwyd ook verkies as Produk Nr 1 by botaniste en omgewingsbewaarders. By mense wat organiese groente groei vir persoonlike gebruik en, natuurlike beheermiddels met lae tot geen skadelike residu wil gebruik.

Ook omdat natuurlike pyrethrum ‘n baie lae toksisteit by warmbloedige soos hul troeteldiere en wilde voëls.

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Lang nawerking

Pyrethrum het NIE ‘n lang doodmaak nawerking nie. Dit word omdat dit ‘n natuurlike plantolie produk is, natuurlik deur die son se ultravioletstrale afgebreek na ‘n organiese nul toe.  Laat geen skade in die grond of op die dier na nie. Het by afbreking ook geen residu-waardes nie.

Alhoewel meeste mense produkte wil hê met lang nawerking, is natuurlike pyrethrum se kortwerkende voordeel hierin dat insekte en teikenspesies peste nie weerstandigheid daarteen kan opbou nie. Hul vrek elke keer as hul daaraan blootgestel word.

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Ses Esters

Natuurlike Pyrethrum bevat ook ses esters. In kort beteken dit dat dit insekte wat hieraan blootgestel word, op ses verskillende maniere doodgemaak word. En, voor die oningeligte persoon hom weer morsdood skrik oor ‘n ester, laat my toe om dit in Engels te plaas sodat hul dit onafhanklik kan gaan opsoek. Daar is letterik derduisende esters.

An ester : “The odors of flowers and the odors and flavors of fresh fruits are a result of a complex mixture of many chemical compounds, but one of the major constituents is a type of compound called an ester. An ester is a compound formed from the reaction between a carboxylic acid and an alcohol with the loss of the water molecule.”

Esters word in warmbloedige diere soos mense, varke, honde, katte en voëls se spysverteringstelsels baie vinnig gehidroliseer na ‘n niksseggende afvalproduk. Met geen skade of nagevolge van ‘n soort nie. Word gewoon deur die liggaam skadeloos uitgeskei.

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Opsommend

Pyrethrum het ‘n baie lang geskiedenis van veiligheid by mens en dier. Die ander groepe van pestisiedes het nie. Dit is nie die plek en of taak om groepe met mekaar te vergeyk om die waarde van pyretrum bokant ander produkte plaas nie. Die ingeligte en persoon wat omgee en lees sal dit self doen en oplees en opsoek en daaop die ingeligte besluit neem.

Short Residual Activity: Pyrethrum is quickly broken down by sunlight therefore a limited time span of low mammalian toxicity usually associated with certain other classes of persistent insecticides.

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Sensitiewe plekke soos skole, kleuterskole, hospitale, ouetehuise kan pyrethrum produkte met groot veilgheid gebruik omdat dit geen swaar reuke het nie, nie aan inwonders skade doen nie en nie allergiese reaksies veroorsaak by sensitiewe kinders, kankerpasiente easook oumense nie.

Blommetjie mieks

  • Is 100% natuurlik en natuurlike plantolies wat as aktief aangebeid word.
  • Dit het n baie vinnige reaksie. Die aktief van die blomolie ontwrig die insek se senustelsel wat op hul beurt na n string reaksies waarby die senuwees betrokke is, die dier ontwring en sy dood veroorsaak.
  • Die senustelsel is betrokke by bloedvloei, spysvertering, asemhaling, hartklop, spysvertering van die insek.
  • Pyrethrum het nie die onmiddelike doodskop en doodmaak reaksie soos by gif wat in blikke verkoop word nie. Vlieg moet daarop sit om van die gif deur die suiers op sy pote op te neem en dan oombikke later disgoriënteerd raak en natuurlik elders vrek.
  • Pyrethrum lok veral muskiete vanuit hul wegkruipplekke en het n hormoon-ontwrigtingseffek by wyfie muskiete. Dit blyk dat hul so deurmekaar raak dat hul onnatuurlik optree en nie bloedmaal soek nie.
  • Insekte vrek natuurlik baie gou met blootstelling aan pyrethrum.
  • Dit blyk dat die onnatuurlike gedrag by muskiete is weens verlamming wat intree by die monddele wat tot verhondering en vrekte lei.
  • Natuurlike pyrethrum het ook ‘n walgingseffek vir insekte.
  • Alhoewel dit vir die menslike sintuie aangenaam ruik weens die ester effek wat binne die Blommetjie mieks mengsel ingebied is.

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Natuurlike pyrethrum kan natuurlik baie spesifiek aangewend word.

  • Op plante
  • Word wêreldwyd op mense en diere gebruik
  • Op oppervlaktes wat nie direkte sonlig ontvang nie
  • By die voorbereiding van teetafels waar koek en soetgoed aanloklik is
  • Op kombuise se werksoppervlaktes waar vlieë peste is
  • By slaghuise waar daar met vleis gewerk word
  • By melkerye se verkoopspunte
  • Op kalwers in kalwerhokke

Dit word juis gebruik omdat dit in die Blommetjiemieks formaat by geen of weglaatbare giftige blootstelling aan mens en dier se onmiddelike omgewing kan meebring en omdat dit bewysbaar ‘n weglaatbare toksisiteit het vir soogdiere.

Anders dan sintetiese piretroide, wat ‘n produk is wat vanuit natuurlike pyrethrum ontwikkel is, is weerstandigheid van Blommetjie Mieks by teikeninsekte pyrethrum nie ‘n probleem of moontlikheid nie weens sy kort nawerking.

 

Akademiese Agtergrond Studie oor Blommetjie Mieks I en II SE samestelling.

1. Introduction

Pyrethrum refers to the Pyrethrum daisy (Chrysanthemum cinerariifolium) from which the insecticidal compound is extracted. Also nicknamed Dalmatian chrysanthemum, this perennial daisy is loaded with chemicals called pyrethrins that are toxic to insects.

Pyrethrum was a genus of several Old World plants now classified as Chrysanthemum or Tanacetum which are cultivated as ornamentals for their showy flower heads. Pyrethrum continues to be used as a common name for plants formerly included in the genus Pyrethrum

The powdered flower heads of T. coccineum and C. cinerariifolium are chief sources of the insecticide. The active substances in pyrethrums are contact poisons for insects and cold-blooded vertebrates. The concentrations of pyrethrum powder used in insecticides are nontoxic to plants, birds, and mammals; therefore, these insecticides find wide use in household and livestock sprays as well as in dusts for edible plants.

Naturally derived pyrethrin insecticides are an important means of chemical control in organic farming. Synthetic pyrethrin compounds, known as pyrethroids, have been developed. Both synthetic and non-synthetic pyrethrins can accumulate in water and wetland sediments and are toxic to fish and aquatic invertebrates. – The Editors of Encyclopedia Britannica

Ocular side effects: Local ophthalmic use or exposure

  • Keratitis
  • Irritative conjunctivitis
  • Allergic conjunctivitis
  • Corneal abrasions.

Clinical significance: From the WHO and the National Registry, there are 54 reports of keratitis and 19 reports of irritative conjunctivitis from topical use of pyrethrum, which presumably got into the eye of the patients inadvertently. From the available data, all adverse reactions were immediate and resolved after 1–2 days after discontinuation of the product.

Clinical Ocular Toxicology | ScienceDirect
2. Pyrethrins: Pyrethrin I, II, cinerin I, II, jasmolin I, II.

  • Pyrethrum extract is obtained from the flower heads of Chrysanthemum cinerariaefolium and consists of a mixture of esters.
  • The esters are unstable in the presence of ultraviolet light and are rapidly metabolized and inactivated by both insects and mammals.
  • The inclusion of mixed-function oxidase inhibitors (such as PBO) in pyrethrin formulations enhances their longevity and insecticidal efficacy.

Mammalian sensitivity to pyrethrum exposure

  • Selective toxicity of the pyrethroids has traditionally been attributed to differences in metabolism between arthropods and mammals
  • Experimental evidence suggests that mammalian nerves have reduced sensitivity of around 250-fold (lower intrinsic sensitivity (10×) and lower sensitivity at mammalian body temperature (5×) combined with faster recovery time (5×)) which must be multiplied by a more rapid detoxification (9×)

The reduced sensitivity is related to enzyme activity and body size differences, which bring a total differential reduced sensitivity of approximately 2000 times.

Stephen W Page, in Small Animal Clinical Pharmacology (Second Edition), 2008, https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/book/9781416046738

3. Mechanism of action

  • Pyrethrins have rapid knockdown activity against susceptible flying insects and fleas and a separate delayed lethal effect.
  • Knockdown effects are almost immediate and thought to be due to excessive sensory hyperactivity of the peripheral nervous system.
  • Resistance to this action is due to selection of a target site with altered amino acid sequence and insensitive to pyrethrin binding.
  • The pyrethroids slow the kinetics of both opening and closing of individual sodium channels, resulting in delayed and prolonged ion channel opening.
  • This causes prolongation of the whole-cell sodium current during a depolarizing pulse and marked slowing of the tail sodium current upon repolarization.
  • Pyrethroids also cause a shift of the activation voltage in the direction of hyperpolarization.
  • These changes in sodium channel kinetics lead to membrane depolarization and an increase in depolarizing after-potential.
  • The latter reaches the threshold for excitation, causing repetitive after-discharges.
  • The membrane depolarization of sensory neurons increases discharge frequency and that of nerve terminals increases the release of transmitter and the frequency of spontaneous miniature postsynaptic potentials.

    4. Neurotoxicity of Pyrethrins and Pyrethroid Insecticide

Pyrethrum is the product prepared from ground flowers of Chrysanthemum species by extraction with organic solvents. It consists of six related esters derived from two acids and three alcohols.

  • The proportion of each varies depending upon the strain of flower, conditions of culture, and method of extraction and concentration (O’Brien 1967; Ray 1991).
  • Pyrethrins decompose rapidly in light to inactive compounds. They are liquids at room temperature, are insoluble in water but are soluble in many organic solvents. They undergo rapid hydrolysis in water, particularly in the presence of acid or alkali.
  • They are primarily contact poisons and penetrate chitin rapidly. They have almost no activity when given orally because they are so readily hydrolyzed to inactive products.
  • Pyrethroids are synthetic compounds that resemble pyrethrins in insecticidal activity but are chemically much more stable. Their chemistry is complex and has been reviewed by Ray (1991).

5. Pyrethrum background

Also known as Dalmatian (or, inaccurately, Persian) insect powder, represents the dried flowers of the daisy-like herbaceous perennial Tanacetum (Chrysanthemum) cinerariaefolium (Compositae) growing naturally along the east coast of the Adriatic Sea.

It is the source of the economically most important botanical insecticides (Casida and Quistad, 1995a). The insecticidal properties of the flowers were discovered in Dalmatia, where the first commercial production of the plant began in 1840. The crop was later introduced in Japan, Kenya, Tanzania, China, Ecuador, New Guinea, Australia, Tasmania, and the United States. Since the early 1940s, the major producer of pyrethrum and pyrethrum extract has been Kenya providing about two-thirds of the world’s production.
The insecticidal ingredients are called pyrethrins; they accumulate in the achenes of the flower heads and amount to 1–2% of the dried flower. The harvesting of flowers is labor intensive, but efforts to produce pyrethrins in tissue cultures on a large scale have not been fruitful (Jovetić and de Gooijer, 1995).

6. Characteristics

The key structural features of pyrethrins were recognized by Staudinger and Ruzicka in 1924 and the structures of all six insecticidal esters were clarified in the subsequent decades (reviewed by Crombie, 1995; Elliott and Janes, 1973; Matsui and Yamamoto, 1971).

The exceptional biological properties and the lack of stability of the natural pyrethrins prompted many groups to find more stable synthetic analogs and these efforts eventually led to the development of numerous pyrethroid insecticides having a broad activity spectrum, excellent selectivity, and improved field stability (Elliott, 1996; Henrick, 1995).

Mammalian toxicity studies as well as the experience of use for over a century demonstrate that pyrethrins are among the safest insecticides.

István Ujváry, in Hayes’ Handbook of Pesticide Toxicology (Third Edition), 2010; Pest Control Agents from Natural Products – ScienceDirect

7. Pyrethrins and Pyrethroids

  • Pyrethrum is one of the oldest natural insecticides in use in the world today, and it has one of the best safety records of all insecticides.
  • It is a mixture of several esters, called pyrethrins, which are extracted from flowers belonging to the genus Chrysanthemum.
  • Natural pyrethrins are unstable to light and are therefore unsuitable for residual application, particularly in agriculture.
  • This led to the development of several classes of related synthetic compounds which have a higher stability to light and a high insecticidal activity. They are known as pyrethroids.
  • In general, pyrethroids can be toxicologicaly divided into two classes on the basis of signs of toxicity: those causing mainly tremor and prostration (T syndrome) and
    those causing choreoathetosis and salivation (CS syndrome).
  • For both groups, the main biological activity is mediated through the effect on sodium channels along the axon membrane of the nerves, in both insects and mammals.
  • The effect on the sodium-exchange disturbance is fully reversible, the duration of which is different for the two classes of pyrethroids: compounds belonging to the group causing the T syndrome produce a considerably shorter effect on the sodium ‘gate’ openings than those belonging to the CS group.
  • Being highly lipophilic, pyrethroids readily pass through cell membranes and are absorbed into the body by all routes following exposure.
  • However, the ratio of the toxic dose by the oral route to that of intravenous injection is very high; this is because of rapid detoxification, mainly by cleaving of the ester bond by esterases.
  • Present-day evidence indicates that doses of a pyrethroid likely to be encountered both in the workplace and through food consumption would not lead to any serious untoward effects, although reversible transient effects on the skin may be recorded and may be used as a warning response of inadvertent exposure.

R. Pleština, in Encyclopedia of Food Sciences and Nutrition (Second Edition), 2003 PESTICIDES AND HERBICIDES | Types of Pesticide – ScienceDirect

8. Toxicology and Human Environments: Pyrethrum

  • The insecticidal extract of the pyrethrum flower Pyrethrum (Chrysanthemum cinerariaefolium) is known as pyrethrins.
  • Of the six insecticidal constituents of the extract of the pyrethrum flowers Pyrethrum (Chrysanthemum) cinerariae (folium), pyrethrins I and II are most prominent, existing in the ratio 71:21:7 for pyrethrin (I and II), cinerin (I and II), and jasmolin (I and II).
  • Pyrethrins are potent, non-systemic, contact insecticides, causing rapid paralysis or knockdown and death at a later stage in a variety of insects.
  • They exhibit low vertebrate toxicity with an acute oral LD50 in rats of 1.2 g/kg.
    The mechanism of action involves modification of nerve membrane Na+ channels. Opening and closing of the Na+ channel is slowed, resulting in increased Na+ permeability and depolarization leading to hyperexcitability.

    Ernest Hodgson, in Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science, 2012, Toxins and Venoms – ScienceDirect

Blousel as raad se gevare

BLOUSEL – DIE SISTEMIESE GEBRUIK

Blousel staan ook bekend as “blue vitriol” ( blou vieterjoel) en “blue stone”. Die aktiewe bestanddeel in blousel is koper sulfaat.

Daar is werklik ‘n wrede outydse geloof dat blousel, wat ook vir die bleik van klere gebruik word, skdaeloos is wanneer dit vir n dier ingegee word. Dit vernietig die totale biologiese maagbioom waar mens en dier se gesondheid begin en steriliseer juis die bakterie at gesondheid en lewe moet en by begin.

Hieronder die uiteensetting van die gevare van inwendige gebruik, per ongeluk of doelbewus.  Koper sulfaat word vandag nog gebruik in die volgende industrieë:

Onkruiddoders   Swamdoders   Insekdoders   Analitiese reagente   Organiese sintese   Chemiese opleiding   Kuns   Ets werk   Kleurstowwe

Kopersulfaat was in die mediese veld gebruik as braakmiddel.  Dit word nou gesien as te toksies vir gebruik hiervoor.  Dit is steeds gelys as ‘n teenmiddel by die “World Health Organization’s Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System.”

Sien die verdere beskrywing van toksikologie hieronder en let asb daarop dat so min as 1 gram koper sulfaat reeds erge newe effekte kan hê.

“Toxicological effects Copper sulfate is an irritant.  The usual routes by which humans can receive toxic exposure to copper sulfate are through eye or skin contact, as well as by inhaling powders and dusts.

Skin contact may result in itching or eczema.  Eye contact with copper sulfate can cause conjunctivitis, inflammation of the eyelid lining, ulceration, and clouding of the cornea.  Upon oral exposure, copper sulfate is only moderately toxic.

According to studies, the lowest dose of copper sulfate that had a toxic impact on humans is 11 mg/kg.  Because of its irritating effect on the gastrointestinal tract, vomiting is automatically triggered in case of the ingestion of copper sulfate.  However, if copper sulfate is retained in the stomach, the symptoms can be severe.  After 1–12 grams of copper sulfate are swallowed, such poisoning signs may occur as a metallic taste in the mouth, burning pain in the chest, nausea, diarrhoea, vomiting, headache and discontinued urination which leads to yellowing of the skin.  In cases of copper sulfate poisoning injury to the brain, stomach, liver, or kidneys may also occur.”

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Copper%28II%29_sulfate

Copper sulfate, also known as ‘blue stone’ or ‘blue vitriol’, is a chemical compound that is used in a wide range of industries. The basic chemical formula of blue vitriol is ‘CuSO4‘, but the salt exists as a series of different compounds, depending on the degree of hydration. ‘Chalcocite’, the anhydrous form of copper sulfate, occurs as a rare mineral and exists as a pale green or grayish-white powder.
The various hydrated forms of copper sulfate include trihydrates, pentahydrates, and heptahydrates. However, copper sulfate pentahydrate (CuSO4.5H2O) is the most commonly found salt. It is bright blue in color and is known as ‘chalcanthite’. This color of the crystals is due to the presence of water of crystallization, and is the best way to distinguish between the anhydrous and hydrated forms.

Copper sulfate can be prepared in the laboratory by reacting various compounds of copper (II) with sulfuric acid. However, it is commercially available on a large-scale basis, and is an economic source of Cu. Copper sulfate pentahydrate readily dissolves in water and is also soluble in methanol, glycerol, and to some extent in ethanol. When the blue crystals of copper sulfate are heated in an open flame, they get dehydrated and turn grayish white.

Uses

Copper sulfate is a versatile chemical compound having a wide range of applications in agriculture, as well as pharmaceutical and chemical industries.

Agriculture

  • Copper sulfate pentahydrate is commonly used as a fungicide to control various bacterial and fungal diseases of crops, fruits, and vegetables, such as mildew, leaf spots, blights, and apple scab.
  • Mixture of copper sulfate and ammonium carbonate, known as Chestnut compound, is used as a soil sterilizer or in horticulture to prevent seedlings from getting damp.
  • It is used in the preparation of Bordeaux mixture, along with lime, which is utilized for leaf application and seed treatment for treating fungal diseases on grapes, melons, and other berries.
  • Copper sulfate pentahydrate is used as a molluscicide, to repel and kill slugs and snails.
  • It as an algaecide to prevent algal growth.

Chemical Industry

  • Copper sulfate is often used in the preparation of catalysts for several reactions in many industries.
  • The anhydrous form of this salt catalyzes many processes like the transacylation in organic synthesis.
  • It is used in purification of gases by removal of hydrogen chloride and hydrogen sulfide.
  • The application of copper sulfate in preparation of dyestuff intermediates and catalyzing the synthesis of diazo compounds and pthalocyanine dyes is very common.
  • Copper sulfate is used as an electrolyte in electroplating and also used in some precipitation reactions.
  • It is utilized as an additive in adhesives.
  • Copper sulfate serves as a coloring agent for glass, cement and ceramics.
  • This salt is also used in many chemistry sets for undertaking various experiments.

Public Health and Medicine

  • Copper sulfate is used as a fungicide not only in agriculture, but also as an antiseptic and germicide against fungal infections in humans.
  • Incorporating this salt in floor cleaning mixtures helps in preventing athlete’s foot in tropical countries.
  • Copper sulfate is used in the preparation of Paris green, to kill mosquito larvae that cause malaria.
  • It is used to keep algal blooms away, especially from the swimming pools and water reservoirs.
  • Copper sulfate helps in eradicating snails that harbor the parasite responsible for causing Schistosomiasis in humans.

Apart from the above uses of copper sulfate, this compound is also used in preparation of wood preservatives to protect timber from wood worms. It is also utilized as a mordant in dyeing, and as a reagent in tanning process. Moreover, growing crystals of this salt is one of the common science fair projects for middle school and high school children.

Copper sulphate poisioning

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18407869

 

 

Waarom vet of kaings in die dieët

Primêre vitamiene word in die Literatuur beskou as Vitamien, A, D, E, K, C en Vitamien B Kompleks.Van hierdie groepe vitamien is Vitamien A, D, E en K “fat soluble” of vetopneembare vitamiene, wyl Vitamin C en B Kompleks wateropneembare vitamiene is.

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Die vetopneembare vitamiene word in spesiale vetselle gestoor, wat “lipocytes” of liposiete genoem word, wyl wateropneembare vitamiene nie in die liggaam, behalwe baie klein hoeveelhede gestoor word.

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Vetopneembare kan toksies raak met ‘n oormaat inname van hierdie vitamiene. Kan selfs toksies wees vir diere as die liggaam dit in oormaat moet stoor. Wateroplosbare word deur die uriene uitgeskei en daar is geen bewys in die Literatuur dat wateroplosbare vitamien enige dier ooit skade aangerig het nie.

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Beide hierdie vitamienes is uiters noodsaaklik vir mens en dier. Diere wat nie die nodige vet inneem wat gunstig in die liggaam as natuurlik ontvang word nie, kan dus nie noodsaaklike opnames maak van Vit A, D, E en K nie.

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Free Radicals II

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  1. Introduction

Antioxidants in Literature are one of the solutions to get rid of naturally produced free radicals.

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Well known natural antioxidants can be attained from well-planned diets, that include various fruits and vegetables. Herbal teas like rooibos, green tea, honey bush, spices such cayenne pepper, ginger, turmeric, pepper, cinnamon and others are also known as sources of natural antioxidants.

As explained, there are two main sources of free radicals.

  • External Sources: The industrial environment that pollutes the air that we breath, the water we use, petrochemical fumes, ultraviolet rays from the sun and pesticide sprays and products to name a few.

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  • Internal Sources: Breathing, turning oxygen into carbon dioxide, food and minerals into waste, water into urine, drugs into waste, as well as exposure to household cleaning products and pets control.

Conclusion

Man and animal are exposed to 1) external sources of free radicals, as explained in External Free Radicals ­­­­in Bentonite Clay, as well as self-produced free radicals which will be explained now.

Importance

To keep man and animal healthy, as well as restraining the physical body and its organs from early aging, the Immune system needs to defend the body every second from the dangers of free radicals. Not only from the external environment, but also from the body as a living cell itself, producing its own free radicals.

It is the immune systems of man and animal and its functional fitness, its ability as a body defense system that able the body to deal with harmful free radicals.

Take Note

Free radicals will be explained in depth in (3). What we do know will be explained in (2) and the limits and questions of what we don’t know, in (3) as well.

  1. Free Radicals Destroy Living Cells

Media portrays many times pictures of Hollywood stars and how they age over the years. In shock admirers of these movie stars stare in disbelief at the human factor in the aging of these actors, not believing how some of these people are ageing in time.

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Scientific studies on rats prove the natural phenomenon of aging. It shows that rats produce a significant number more of free radicals when they naturally age.  These natural age related modifications of their bodies, also match the age-related illnesses associated with ageing rats.

Fact

  • Research on rats in independent studies indicates that free radicals produced in the mitochondria (the little engine of each and every living cell), is also the engine that damages the elements in the cell that keeps it alive, rejuvenated and functional.

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  • Therefore in skin and health care, the focus should be on the health and abilities of the mitochondria, the little machine that is rejuvenating the body’s DNA, the telomeres, those parts of chromosomes in our bodies that controls aging and have links to various diseases and long life.

This damage causes mutations that produce more free radicals. In effect rushing the process of skin aging and or skin damage as free radicals cause cells to turn against themselves.

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In effect it means that the cell turns against its own organs in the cell, which are the machines that must rejuvenate and revitalise the cells in skin repairing and skin growth. The reverse effect of skin growth damage cell walls, the little engines in each and every cell that revitalise cell growth, the mitochondria, the glue between cells, collagen, shortening telomeres that are critical to cell growth and cell reconstruction, as well the function of other critical cell structures.

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If left untreated, or without proper care by guessing being misled with make believe or brand marketing products, the gradual and increasingly build-up of free radicals explains why healthy bodies age in many unwanted ways and rapidly deteriorate at some point in time.

Causes

Although free radicals are produced naturally in the body, lifestyle factors as well as external factors from outside can also accelerate free radical production in skin cells. Especially when harvested by oily or water based substrates applied on the skin to hide acne marks, pores and wrinkle’s.

These free radicals include:

  • exposure to toxic chemicals, such as pesticides and air pollution, petro-chemicals
  • smoking
  • alcohol
  • fried foods
  • drugs
  • sunburn damaging the skin DNA

Above mentioned lifestyle factors have also been linked to diseases such as cancer and cardiovascular diseases.

The term “Oxidative stress” will explain why exposure to these substances can causes many types of diseases.

  1. Antioxidants and free radicals

The Media portray thousands of products selling the solutions to anti-aging and detoxing harmful elements from the human body. Products sells as if they are the only of the answer to the elimination of free radicals as well as the reversing of its harmful effects.

The truth is, it is only a healthy and well cared immune system, supported by the genetic qualities of the individual that brings real solutions to the individual body and skin health. No two persons are the same. True health and skin care can also only progress reactively within the reality of the effects of aging, given that the individual is actively protected his/her health with testable knowledge of what does cause individual aging and illnesses.

Antioxidants

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Antioxidants are molecules in food sources that prevents the oxidation of other molecules in the body that lessen or prevent the effects of free radicals.

How antioxidants function

  • Antioxidants donate an electron to a free radical, thereby reducing its harmful possible reactivity.
  • Antioxidants are unique in the sense that they can donate an electron to a free radical, without becoming a free radical itself.
  • Antioxidants act as scavengers, stealing electrons from free radicals and in the process helps to prevent cell and tissue damage, that could lead to cellular damage and disease.

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Be not be misled

  • No single antioxidant can combat the effects of every free radical.
  • Free radicals have different effects in different areas of the body.
  • Every antioxidant behaves differently due to its chemical properties.

Antioxidant foods and supplements

Many foods are rich in antioxidants. Berries, citrus fruits, and many other fruits are rich in vitamin C, while carrots are known for their high beta-carotene content. The soy found in soybeans and some meat substitutes are high in phytoestrogens.

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The goodness of antioxidants in foods have inspired many health experts to recommend antioxidant-rich diets. Also did the “Antioxidant theory of Aging” led many Health Companies to push sales of antioxidant supplements.

The ill-understanding and the ill-use of antioxidants can also be harmful. Antioxidants are able to into “Pro-oxidants”. This means when antioxidants are used without understanding what it must do, an antioxidant can turn into a pro-oxidant.

It will then search and link to electrons from other molecules, resulting in chemical instabilities that will lead to oxidative stresses of sorts.

Thousands of chemicals can act as antioxidants. Vitamins C, and E, glutathione, beta-carotene, and plant oestrogens called phytoestrogens are well known antioxidants.

Research on antioxidants are mixed.

Studies suggest that antioxidants cannot “cure” the effects of free radicals, especially those antioxidants coming from artificial sources.

What we do know is the following;

  • That we need much more data to understand the real problem of free radicals
  • Antioxidants neutralize free radicals by donating one of their own electrons, ending the electron-“stealing” reaction.
  • Free radicals are an early sign of cells fighting (immune system) a possible disease or aging
  • Free radical formation is inevitable with age.

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The Role of Vitamins C and E

  • Vitamin E does not turn into a free radical when donating an electron
  • Vitamin E is also the most abundant fat-soluble antioxidant in the body.
  • Vitamin E is known as one of the most efficient chain-breaking antioxidants available.
  • Vitamin E is also known as the primary defender against oxidation
  • Vitamin E is the primary defender against lipid peroxidation (creation of unstable molecules containing more oxygen than is usual).
  • Vitamin E may protect against cardiovascular disease by defending against LDL oxidation and artery-clogging plaque formation.

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Vitamin C

  • Vitamin C is the most abundant water-soluble antioxidant in the body and acts primarily in cellular fluid.
  • Vitamin C is also known for combating free-radical formation caused by external pollution and cigarette smoke.
  • Also helps return vitamin E to its active form.
  • Many studies have correlated high vitamin C intakes with low rates of cancer, particularly cancers of the mouth, larynx and esophagus.

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Conclusion

  1. Literature suggest that antioxidants are believed to help protect the body from free-radical damage. But be warned, the solution is not mega-doses of these vitamins as more is not always better and might turn against your body in.
  2. The long-term effect of large doses of these nutrients has not been proven. Other chemicals and substances found in natural sources of antioxidants may also be responsible for the beneficial effects. So for now, the best way to ensure adequate intake of the antioxidant nutrients is through a balanced diet consisting of 5-8 servings of fruits and vegetables per day.