Blousel as raad se gevare

BLOUSEL – DIE SISTEMIESE GEBRUIK

Blousel staan ook bekend as “blue vitriol” ( blou vieterjoel) en “blue stone”. Die aktiewe bestanddeel in blousel is koper sulfaat.

Daar is werklik ‘n wrede outydse geloof dat blousel, wat ook vir die bleik van klere gebruik word, skdaeloos is wanneer dit vir n dier ingegee word. Dit vernietig die totale biologiese maagbioom waar mens en dier se gesondheid begin en steriliseer juis die bakterie at gesondheid en lewe moet en by begin.

Hieronder die uiteensetting van die gevare van inwendige gebruik, per ongeluk of doelbewus.  Koper sulfaat word vandag nog gebruik in die volgende industrieë:

Onkruiddoders   Swamdoders   Insekdoders   Analitiese reagente   Organiese sintese   Chemiese opleiding   Kuns   Ets werk   Kleurstowwe

Kopersulfaat was in die mediese veld gebruik as braakmiddel.  Dit word nou gesien as te toksies vir gebruik hiervoor.  Dit is steeds gelys as ‘n teenmiddel by die “World Health Organization’s Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System.”

Sien die verdere beskrywing van toksikologie hieronder en let asb daarop dat so min as 1 gram koper sulfaat reeds erge newe effekte kan hê.

“Toxicological effects Copper sulfate is an irritant.  The usual routes by which humans can receive toxic exposure to copper sulfate are through eye or skin contact, as well as by inhaling powders and dusts.

Skin contact may result in itching or eczema.  Eye contact with copper sulfate can cause conjunctivitis, inflammation of the eyelid lining, ulceration, and clouding of the cornea.  Upon oral exposure, copper sulfate is only moderately toxic.

According to studies, the lowest dose of copper sulfate that had a toxic impact on humans is 11 mg/kg.  Because of its irritating effect on the gastrointestinal tract, vomiting is automatically triggered in case of the ingestion of copper sulfate.  However, if copper sulfate is retained in the stomach, the symptoms can be severe.  After 1–12 grams of copper sulfate are swallowed, such poisoning signs may occur as a metallic taste in the mouth, burning pain in the chest, nausea, diarrhoea, vomiting, headache and discontinued urination which leads to yellowing of the skin.  In cases of copper sulfate poisoning injury to the brain, stomach, liver, or kidneys may also occur.”

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Copper%28II%29_sulfate

Copper sulfate, also known as ‘blue stone’ or ‘blue vitriol’, is a chemical compound that is used in a wide range of industries. The basic chemical formula of blue vitriol is ‘CuSO4‘, but the salt exists as a series of different compounds, depending on the degree of hydration. ‘Chalcocite’, the anhydrous form of copper sulfate, occurs as a rare mineral and exists as a pale green or grayish-white powder.
The various hydrated forms of copper sulfate include trihydrates, pentahydrates, and heptahydrates. However, copper sulfate pentahydrate (CuSO4.5H2O) is the most commonly found salt. It is bright blue in color and is known as ‘chalcanthite’. This color of the crystals is due to the presence of water of crystallization, and is the best way to distinguish between the anhydrous and hydrated forms.

Copper sulfate can be prepared in the laboratory by reacting various compounds of copper (II) with sulfuric acid. However, it is commercially available on a large-scale basis, and is an economic source of Cu. Copper sulfate pentahydrate readily dissolves in water and is also soluble in methanol, glycerol, and to some extent in ethanol. When the blue crystals of copper sulfate are heated in an open flame, they get dehydrated and turn grayish white.

Uses

Copper sulfate is a versatile chemical compound having a wide range of applications in agriculture, as well as pharmaceutical and chemical industries.

Agriculture

  • Copper sulfate pentahydrate is commonly used as a fungicide to control various bacterial and fungal diseases of crops, fruits, and vegetables, such as mildew, leaf spots, blights, and apple scab.
  • Mixture of copper sulfate and ammonium carbonate, known as Chestnut compound, is used as a soil sterilizer or in horticulture to prevent seedlings from getting damp.
  • It is used in the preparation of Bordeaux mixture, along with lime, which is utilized for leaf application and seed treatment for treating fungal diseases on grapes, melons, and other berries.
  • Copper sulfate pentahydrate is used as a molluscicide, to repel and kill slugs and snails.
  • It as an algaecide to prevent algal growth.

Chemical Industry

  • Copper sulfate is often used in the preparation of catalysts for several reactions in many industries.
  • The anhydrous form of this salt catalyzes many processes like the transacylation in organic synthesis.
  • It is used in purification of gases by removal of hydrogen chloride and hydrogen sulfide.
  • The application of copper sulfate in preparation of dyestuff intermediates and catalyzing the synthesis of diazo compounds and pthalocyanine dyes is very common.
  • Copper sulfate is used as an electrolyte in electroplating and also used in some precipitation reactions.
  • It is utilized as an additive in adhesives.
  • Copper sulfate serves as a coloring agent for glass, cement and ceramics.
  • This salt is also used in many chemistry sets for undertaking various experiments.

Public Health and Medicine

  • Copper sulfate is used as a fungicide not only in agriculture, but also as an antiseptic and germicide against fungal infections in humans.
  • Incorporating this salt in floor cleaning mixtures helps in preventing athlete’s foot in tropical countries.
  • Copper sulfate is used in the preparation of Paris green, to kill mosquito larvae that cause malaria.
  • It is used to keep algal blooms away, especially from the swimming pools and water reservoirs.
  • Copper sulfate helps in eradicating snails that harbor the parasite responsible for causing Schistosomiasis in humans.

Apart from the above uses of copper sulfate, this compound is also used in preparation of wood preservatives to protect timber from wood worms. It is also utilized as a mordant in dyeing, and as a reagent in tanning process. Moreover, growing crystals of this salt is one of the common science fair projects for middle school and high school children.

Copper sulphate poisioning

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18407869

 

 

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Spirocerca Lupi

SPIROCERCA LUPI:  Die “stille moordenaar”

 Spirocercosis word die toestand genoem wat deur die wurm “Spirocerca lupi” veroorsaak word.  Hierdie wurm lewe in die nodules van die oesophagus (ook genoem die “gullet”) wat ‘n gedeelte is van die hond se spysverteringstelsel, ‘n gedeelte tussen die maag en die mond.

Nodules is klein gewassies wat natuurlik in die liggaam voorkom.  Hierdie wurms kan tot 2 jaar lank oorleef in hierdie gewassies, waar hul eiers lê en dit in klein openings van die gewas uitskei, waar dit in ‘n hond se mismonster vasgestel kan word.

Miskruiers (die “Coprophagous beetle”) wat so ‘n belangrike funksie in die Natuur speel, neem hierdie Spirocerca eiers in met die mis wat hul verwerk.  Die eiers ontwikkel in die miskruier na ‘n L1 stadium (wat die eerste larwe stadium is).  Honde word op hierdie metode besmet wanneer hul die miskruiers eet.  Hierdie miskruiers word gemiddeld 6mm groot.  Dit is NIE die wonderlike groot miskruiers wat ons in die algemeen ken nie.

Ontwikkeling

 Nadat die hond die miskruier geëet het, ontwikkel die wurm in die maag van die hond.  Hierdie wurm boor dan deur die maagwand, veroorsaak enorme pyn en ongemak in die maag en beweeg na bloedvate rondom die maag van die dier.

Hierdie wurmlarwes migreer opwaarts binne die wande van die bloedvate, waar hul binne weke deurbeweeg om by die aorta, die hoofslagaar wat die hart verlaat, uitkom.  Hier doen hul enorme skade omdat hul die wande van die aorta verswak en daardeur ‘n aneurisme veroorsaak.

Jong volwasse wurms, wat gewoonlik in stadia L3 en L4 is, migreer dan direk na die slukderm (die “oesophagus”), wat baie naby aan die aorta lê.  Hierdie wurms kan ook na die rugstring toe migreer.  Binne die slukderm vorm hierdie wurms nodules binne die slukderm se wande, waar hul eiers lê en hul lewensiklus van voor af begin.

Tekens

 Simptome en tekens is nie baie duidelik en spesifiek nie omdat die wurmlarwe migreer deur die liggaam se wande en ook vatplek kry in nie-funksionele nodules wat in die liggaam voorkom. Veroorsaak gewigsverlies, naar word en ook braking (“retching”), met ander woorde die aksie om op te gooi sonder om te vomeer.

Hierdie nodules kan ook in kanker omskakel.  Abnormale migrasie van die wurm kan ook verlamming en neurologiese versteurings veroorsaak.  In laat stadiums kan daar ook n verdikking in die voorbene wees.

Skielike sterftes kan voorkom omdat die jong wurms skielike skade aan die aorta en daardeur aneurismes veroorsaak.  Omdat die skade wat hierdie wurm veroorsaak permanent is, kan skielike sterftes aan die aorta steeds gebeur nadat die wurm van die dier se liggaam verwyder is.  Dit is egter skaars omdat die Literatuur bewys dat dit eerder in die vroeë migrerende stadiums gebeur.

Spirocerca Lupi is bekend as die “Laksman”, die “Sniper” of “Silent killer” omdat daar baie min uiterlike tekens is dat die hond siek is.

Volwasse “Spirocerca lupi” is helder rooi wurms – die manlike wurms is sowat 40mm lank en die wyfies is sowat 70mm lank.  Dit het ‘n baie komplekse lewensiklus, wat ‘n finale stadia, ‘n intermediêre en dan ‘n parateniese stadia in ‘n gasheer het.  ‘n Parateniese gasheer is een waar geen ontwikkeling – of geen verdere ontwikkeling – plaasvind nie.

Die finale gasheer van hierdie wurmparasiet is die hond.  Die intermediêre gasheer is byvoorbeeld die miskruier.  Parateniese gashere sluit ‘n verskeidenheid van lewende organismes in.  Hierdie organismes dra by tot die verspreiding van die wurm.  Paddas eet die miskruiers, verskeie akkedissoorte, verskeie voëlsoorte, rotte en muise – alles organismes wat honde vang, eet en jaag.  Honde word dus deur hierdie roete geinfekteer wanneer hul hierdie organismes eet.

Behandeling

 Wurmmiddels wat fokus om die wurm dood te maak in sy larwe stadia, asook binne-in die nodules, is die beste wat die wetenskap tans het.  Wanneer kanker ontstaan het, is die behandeling heel anders.

Dit is ‘n geval waar jou veearts ‘n belangrike rol speel om hierdie dodelike wurm te behandel met spesialis behandeling – onthou altyd voorkoming is beter as beheer.  Milbemax en Advocate Spot-on is nou geregistreer om hierdie wurm te verhoed met gereelde maandelikse behandeling (http://www.aloevets.co.za/spirocerca.html).  Jou veearts mag moontlik behandel met ‘n Ivomec of Dormectin inspuiting na diagnose van besmetting om die larwe en volwasse wurms te vernietig.

 

Dr Liesel van der Merwe, Valley Farm Animal Hospital, Pretoria

 

 

 

Hoekom eet honde mis- Why do dogs eat poop?

Honde eet misvir klomp redes, maar as groot honde dit eet is dit gewoonlik n onderliggende ensiemtekort wat hul beleef, ook bekend as pankreatitis of dermabsorbsies wat nie baie goed is nie. Die pancreas skei ensieme af wat die die maag met vertering aanhelp.

Die pankreas van honde skei dus ensieme af wat help met die afbreking en absorpsie van kos wat ingeneem word. Baie honde se pankreas afskeiding is onvoldoende en hul vind mis van ander honde as n goeie bron van ensieme om hul met die vertering van hul kis te help

Dit kan ook wees weens onvoldoende ontwurming, of ‘n oor die toonbankmiddel wat net een of twee van die groepe wurmmiddels bevat en op ander groepe wurms geen effek het nie.  Dit laat verskeie mineral en vitamientekorte in n hond agter wat hy met die vreet van mis probeer regstel.

As jy hase het sal jy sien dat honde baie graag haasmis eet omdat dit n ryk bron van ensieme is en ook Vit B.

Kry by jou slagter rou vark of beesmilt, pankreas en gee in rou repe vir jou dier. Jy kan dit ook in ‘n wors met longe en lewer met hart en ander organe soos groen pens inmaal en jou honde die beste van gesondheid ooit gee.

Ontwurm jou diere met produkte soos Antezole, Advocate, Triworm, Drontal en Milbemax.

 

 

Why do dogs eat poo?

 Dogs eat poop for lots of reasons. Sometimes there’s an underlying medical problem like an enzyme deficiency or pancreatic insufficiency. Intestinal malabsorption and GI parasites are also common medical reasons underlying coprophagia.

At my practice we recommend clients bring their dogs in every six months for a stool check for parasites. Healthy dogs can wind up with intestinal parasites from eating poop, so twice-yearly stool analysis can be a very helpful tool.

A dog’s pancreas secretes digestive enzymes to aid in food digestion, but many dogs don’t make enough of these enzymes and wind up deficient. Since the feces of other animals are a good source of digestive enzymes, dogs with a deficiency will sometimes ingest enzyme-rich poop. In fact, rabbit poop is a very rich source of not only enzymes, but also B vitamins, which is why many dogs, given the opportunity, will happily scarf up rabbit droppings.

In my experience, dogs on processed dry food diets will often seek out other sources of digestive enzymes to make up for a chronic enzyme deficiency brought on by a biologically inappropriate diet.

Author unknown!