Leaky gut (LGS)

“Leaky gut syndrome is a condition that affects your digestive system. In leaky gut syndrome, these tight junctions loosen, potentially allowing harmful substances like bacteria, toxins and undigested food particles to enter your bloodstream…”


Leaky Gut: Can This Overlooked Sickness Be Wrecking Your Health?

by Ronald Grisanti D.C., D.A.B.C.O., D.A.C.B.N., M.S.

Leaky Gut Syndrome (LGS) is a major cause of disease and dysfunction in modern society, accounts for at least 50% of chronic complaints, as confirmed by laboratory tests.


In LGS, the epithelium on the villi of the small intestine becomes inflamed and irritated, which allows metabolic and microbial toxins of the small intestines to flood into the blood stream. This event compromises the liver, the lymphatic system, and the immune response including the endocrine system.

Some of the most incurable diseases are caused by this exact mechanism, where the body. Gut Syndrome is often the real basis for chronic fatigue syndrome and pediatric immune deficiencies.


Leaky attacks its own tissues.

This is commonly called auto-immune disease.

It is often the primary cause of the following common conditions: asthma, food allergies, chronic sinusitis, eczema, urticaria, migraine, irritable bowel, fungal disorders, fibromyalgia, and inflammatory joint disorders including rheumatoid arthritis are just a few of the diseases that can originate with leaky gut. It also contributes to PMS, uterine fibroid, and breast fibroid.


Leaky Gut Syndrome is reaching epidemic proportions within the population. Historically, the only way bowel toxins entered the blood stream was through trauma, for example by sword or spear.


This quickly led to septicemia that might be treatable, or more probably, ended in death. Outside of trauma, the body maintained a wonderfully effective selective barrier in the small intestine, one that allowed nutrients to enter, but kept out metabolic wastes and microbial toxins rampant in the intestines.

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What Modern Event Allowed Such A Break-Down?

Primarily it has been antibiotics, secondarily non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs, Motrin, Aleve and Advil) with NSAIDs being the major cause of leaky gut because they so viciously inflame the intestinal lining, causing a widening of the spaces between cells and sometimes hemorrhaging.


Other common causes are chemotherapy, ingested alcohol, inhaled formaldehyde from a new carpet, food allergens, stress emotions, lactase deficiency, gluten/gliaden allergy, abnormal gut flora (bacteria, parasites, yeasts).

The first antibiotic, penicillin, did not enter mainstream health care until 1939. Since the 50’s and 60’s, antibiotic use has been frantically prescribed for every infection and inflammation, particularly pediatric ear infection, bronchitis, and sore throat.


It is sadly ironic that most of these infections are viral in nature, and not only are the antibiotics damaging, but they are ultimately unnecessary. Antibiotics should be considered a hospitalization level medicine, when bacteria have entered the blood, bone, or organ.

Antibiotics Destroy Beneficial Bacteria

Antibiotics create their damage in two ways. The first is by destroying beneficial bacteria. The small intestine and large intestine host over five hundred different kinds of beneficial bacteria. These bacteria perform hundreds of functions required for healthy metabolism and immune response.


Through enzyme secretions, bacteria transform metabolic and microbial wastes before they are discharged by the body. These wastes include cellular debris, hormones, chemical wastes, bile, pus accumulations, viral toxins, bacterial toxins, etc.


For example, the body creates bile not only as a lubricant to flush wastes out of the liver, but also, to detoxify many of the poisons accumulating in the liver. Bile however is extremely damaging to large intestine epithelium.

When bile enters the small intestine via the common bile duct, beneficial bacteria break the bile salts down into a less toxic compound, making it non-dangerous by the time it reaches the large intestine.


When you take antibiotics you destroy these bacteria and the bile salts freely enter and damage the large intestine. I believe this contributes significantly to the high incidence of colon cancer plaguing today’s society.

Beneficial bacteria also break down hormone secretions that are discharged from the liver to the small intestine. If you lack the bacteria to break down estrogen and the intestinal permeability has been altered, the patient is now reabsorbing estrogens in their original state.


The body will deposit these in estrogen sensitive areas such as the breast, uterus, or ovaries, contributing, if not causing, fibroids and tumors. The same scenario is responsible for premenstrual syndrome as well.

Healthy mucosa allows nutrients to pass the barrier while blocking the entry of toxins.

With leaky gut, the barrier is dysfunctional, blocking nutrients at the damaged villi while permitting toxins to enter the blood stream.


Antibiotics Promote the Growth of Fungus

The second way antibiotics damage the intestines is by fostering the growth of Candida albicans and other pathogenic fungi and yeast. This event, more than any other, precipitates Leaky Gut Syndrome.


In a healthy situation the small intestine epithelium maintains tight cell junctions, which contributes to the physical barrier involved in intestinal absorption. In addition to the physical barrier, there is an important chemical barrier within the mucus that contains immune agents, which neutralize any toxin that comes in contact.

Candida exudes an aldehyde secretion, which causes small intestine epithelial cells to shrink. This allows intestinal toxins to infiltrate through the epithelium and into the blood. The secondary barrier – immune agents in the epithelial mucus – remain the sole agent for neutralization.

Eventually, the immune system becomes exhausted rising to this challenge.

The damage done by Candida is to the intestinal epithelial barrier, allowing the absorption of serious toxic agents and chemicals, which then enter the blood and affect numerous organs, including the brain.


Food Allergies: The Complicating Factor

When the integrity of the intestinal barrier has been compromised, intestinal toxins are not the only pathogens to be absorbed. The barrier, in a healthy state, selectively allows digested nutrients to enter the small intestine when all is ready.

With leaky gut, nutrients can be absorbed before they are fully digested. The body’s immune response, through specific antigen-antibody markers, will tag some of these foods as foreign irritants.


Every time that particular food touches the epithelia, an inflammatory immune response is mounted which further damages the epithelial lining. What started as a Candida irritation with shrinking of the cells has now been complicated with active inflammation every time a particular food is eaten.

Food allergies are a common secondary problem to Candida, and if present, will maintain the leaky gut continuously, even if the Candida is eradicated.


The most common food allergies are dairy, eggs, gluten grains (wheat, oats, rye), corn, beans (especially soy), and nuts. There are seldom real allergies to meat, rice, millet, vegetables, or fruit, although an allergy to garlic is not uncommon.

We have to distinguish a real allergy – that which causes a histamine inflammatory reaction at the site of the small intestine (SI) epithelia – from sensitivity, which may cause uncomfortable symptoms, but seldom is damaging.


Sensitivities are usually due to low stomach acid or pancreatic enzyme secretion, that is, poor digestion.

In the healing of the intestinal lining, exposure to a significant allergy can sabotage the treatment. For example, one may be very good at restricting wheat, dairy and eggs, but then compromises the treatment by taking garlic tablets.

The Role of the Liver and Lymphatic System

The metabolic and microbial toxins that enter the bloodstream during leaky gut end up in the liver, which has the job of detoxifying and discharging the poisons. Under normal conditions, the liver is taxed just by processing the daily metabolic wastes created by cell and organ activity.


Imagine the further load created by dumping serious intestinal toxins on a regular basis. There is a point when the liver becomes saturated; it cannot further detoxify the poisons, and they are returned to the blood circulation.

The blood has sophisticated mechanisms for preserving chemical homeostasis, and will diffuse as much of the toxic chemicals and physical debris into the interstitial fluids as is possible. From here the lymphatic system will attempt to collect and neutralize the toxins, but unable to send the toxins to the liver, the body essentially becomes toxic.

Microbes grow and develop, hence there can be chronic lymphatic swelling, especially in children. Over a period of time, toxins will be forced into distal connective tissue around muscles and joints, causing fibromyalgia, or into the cells, which can precipitate genetic mutation and ultimately cancer.

Stress to the Immune and Endocrine Systems

The immune system is stressed in three major ways. First is at the site of the intestinal mucosa. As toxins and food antigens brush up against the mucosa, the immune system mobilizes to neutralize the toxins. Normally, much of this work would have been done by beneficial bacteria, which have been destroyed by antibiotics.

For toxins that make it to the mucosa, the body will tag them with a chemical secretory IgA (SIgA), which attracts macrophages and other white blood cells to consume the toxins. It is not long before this immune response is overwhelmed and depleted.


This can be measured directly with a stool or saliva test for the intestinal SIgA level.

The second stressor happens in the liver and lymphatic system, which, also overwhelmed, puts demands on the immune system. The third stressor is a consequence: as the immune response diminishes, more microbes (viruses, bacteria, and fungi) multiply, allowing for a chronic state of infection.

The most important organ in the production of immune agents seems to be the adrenal gland, and Leaky Gut Syndrome slowly diminishes adrenal function. In the early and middle stages, there is actually an adrenal excess, as measured by excess cortisol output. Eventually, cortisol levels drop, and one now has exhaustion.

The Role of the Digestive Tract

Candida flourishes when the terrain in the intestines favors it. Just killing Candida is usually not successful, because the chemistry and vitality of the terrain has not been normalized, and Candida returns.

Antibiotics are the original cause of the change on the terrain. By killing acid forming bacteria (Lactobacillus bacteria produce lactic acid, for example), the environment becomes alkaline, which promotes Candida.

Antibiotics and chronic illness reduce stomach acid production, contributing to the alkalinity, and also allowing poor digestive absorption. In fact, many people with LGS are malnourished and will lose excessive weight, no matter how healthy the food is that they eat.

The idea that lactobacillus supplementation is all that is required after antibiotics is somewhat delusional; in fact most of the lactobacillus from supplementation does not survive in the intestine, due to poor terrain. Just to make sure you have a full understanding of the seriousness of Leaky Gut, the following is a summary:


  • When the gut is inflamed it does not secrete digestive enzymes to digest foods properly or absorb nutrients and foods properly. The result can indigestion with gas and bloating, called irritable bowel syndrome (IBS).
  • When large food particles are absorbed, food allergies and new symptoms are created (e.g., IBS, gallbladder disease, arthritis or fibromyalgia).
  • When the gut is inflamed, carrier proteins are damaged, so malabsorption and nutrient deficiencies occur.These deficiencies slow down the ability of the gut to heal and can cause any number of other symptoms (e.g., magnesium deficiency induced angina or gut spasms, chromium deficiency induced high cholesterol or sugar cravings, zinc deficiency induced prostatitis or lack acid formation)
  • When the detoxification pathways that line the gut are compromised, chemical sensitivity can arise. Furthermore, the leakage of toxins overburderns the liver so that the body is less to handle everyday chemicals in foods, water and air.
  •  Now many foods can cause symptoms that never did before, because the gut’s detoxification (liver) system is unable to cope with the hundreds of chemical additives, dyes, colorings, preservatives and pesticides common in our foods.
  • When the gut lining is inflamed, the protective coating of the gut antibodies can be lost. With loss of the secretory immunoglobulin A (SigA), the body becomes more vulnerable to infections in the intestines from bacteria, viruses, parasites and yeast and they become resistant to treatment.
  • Ironically, the more resistant the bugs become, the more-high powered antibiotics doctor prescribe, resulting in more overgrowth of resistant fungi (Candida). As the unwanted bugs grow, the gut gets more inflamed and leaky initiating a vicious cycle of worsening condition and major cause of so many incurable diseases.
  • When the intestinal lining is inflamed, bacteria and yeast can translocate. In other words, they can pass from the gut cavity into the blood stream and set up infection anywhere else in the body, including the brain. This is often the mysterious and undiagnosed cause of infections in the teeth and gums, bones, prostate, bladder and sinuses.
  • With the formation of antibodies, the food antigens that leak across the gut wall can sometimes resemble the natural antigens on tissues. Protective antibodies will then attack the antigens, as they should and the tissues, causing further damage.

It is the very reason why auto-immune diseases begin. Lupus, multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, myocarditis, iritis and thyroiditis are some of the members of this ever-growing category of mysteriously incurable auto-immune diseases.

Ron Grisanti, D.C., D.A.B.C.O., M.S.  is a board certified chiropractic orthopedist with a master’s degree in nutritional science from the University of Bridgeport.  He is past chairman of the South Carolina Chiropractic Peer Review and serves on the South Carolina Chiropractic Investigative Committee.  His 27 years of clinical practice has positioned him as an authority in the management of a variety of chronic health conditions such as fibromyalgia, arthritis, digestive disorders, anxiety and other common ailments. He has authored two books on the functional medical management of arthritis and obesity, and has authored well over 1,000 articles including the following, some of which have been published in leading chiropractic journals.



Blousel as raad se gevare


Blousel staan ook bekend as “blue vitriol” ( blou vieterjoel) en “blue stone”. Die aktiewe bestanddeel in blousel is koper sulfaat.

Daar is werklik ‘n wrede outydse geloof dat blousel, wat ook vir die bleik van klere gebruik word, skdaeloos is wanneer dit vir n dier ingegee word. Dit vernietig die totale biologiese maagbioom waar mens en dier se gesondheid begin en steriliseer juis die bakterie at gesondheid en lewe moet en by begin.

Hieronder die uiteensetting van die gevare van inwendige gebruik, per ongeluk of doelbewus.  Koper sulfaat word vandag nog gebruik in die volgende industrieë:

Onkruiddoders   Swamdoders   Insekdoders   Analitiese reagente   Organiese sintese   Chemiese opleiding   Kuns   Ets werk   Kleurstowwe

Kopersulfaat was in die mediese veld gebruik as braakmiddel.  Dit word nou gesien as te toksies vir gebruik hiervoor.  Dit is steeds gelys as ‘n teenmiddel by die “World Health Organization’s Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System.”

Sien die verdere beskrywing van toksikologie hieronder en let asb daarop dat so min as 1 gram koper sulfaat reeds erge newe effekte kan hê.

“Toxicological effects Copper sulfate is an irritant.  The usual routes by which humans can receive toxic exposure to copper sulfate are through eye or skin contact, as well as by inhaling powders and dusts.

Skin contact may result in itching or eczema.  Eye contact with copper sulfate can cause conjunctivitis, inflammation of the eyelid lining, ulceration, and clouding of the cornea.  Upon oral exposure, copper sulfate is only moderately toxic.

According to studies, the lowest dose of copper sulfate that had a toxic impact on humans is 11 mg/kg.  Because of its irritating effect on the gastrointestinal tract, vomiting is automatically triggered in case of the ingestion of copper sulfate.  However, if copper sulfate is retained in the stomach, the symptoms can be severe.  After 1–12 grams of copper sulfate are swallowed, such poisoning signs may occur as a metallic taste in the mouth, burning pain in the chest, nausea, diarrhoea, vomiting, headache and discontinued urination which leads to yellowing of the skin.  In cases of copper sulfate poisoning injury to the brain, stomach, liver, or kidneys may also occur.”


Copper sulfate, also known as ‘blue stone’ or ‘blue vitriol’, is a chemical compound that is used in a wide range of industries. The basic chemical formula of blue vitriol is ‘CuSO4‘, but the salt exists as a series of different compounds, depending on the degree of hydration. ‘Chalcocite’, the anhydrous form of copper sulfate, occurs as a rare mineral and exists as a pale green or grayish-white powder.
The various hydrated forms of copper sulfate include trihydrates, pentahydrates, and heptahydrates. However, copper sulfate pentahydrate (CuSO4.5H2O) is the most commonly found salt. It is bright blue in color and is known as ‘chalcanthite’. This color of the crystals is due to the presence of water of crystallization, and is the best way to distinguish between the anhydrous and hydrated forms.

Copper sulfate can be prepared in the laboratory by reacting various compounds of copper (II) with sulfuric acid. However, it is commercially available on a large-scale basis, and is an economic source of Cu. Copper sulfate pentahydrate readily dissolves in water and is also soluble in methanol, glycerol, and to some extent in ethanol. When the blue crystals of copper sulfate are heated in an open flame, they get dehydrated and turn grayish white.


Copper sulfate is a versatile chemical compound having a wide range of applications in agriculture, as well as pharmaceutical and chemical industries.


  • Copper sulfate pentahydrate is commonly used as a fungicide to control various bacterial and fungal diseases of crops, fruits, and vegetables, such as mildew, leaf spots, blights, and apple scab.
  • Mixture of copper sulfate and ammonium carbonate, known as Chestnut compound, is used as a soil sterilizer or in horticulture to prevent seedlings from getting damp.
  • It is used in the preparation of Bordeaux mixture, along with lime, which is utilized for leaf application and seed treatment for treating fungal diseases on grapes, melons, and other berries.
  • Copper sulfate pentahydrate is used as a molluscicide, to repel and kill slugs and snails.
  • It as an algaecide to prevent algal growth.

Chemical Industry

  • Copper sulfate is often used in the preparation of catalysts for several reactions in many industries.
  • The anhydrous form of this salt catalyzes many processes like the transacylation in organic synthesis.
  • It is used in purification of gases by removal of hydrogen chloride and hydrogen sulfide.
  • The application of copper sulfate in preparation of dyestuff intermediates and catalyzing the synthesis of diazo compounds and pthalocyanine dyes is very common.
  • Copper sulfate is used as an electrolyte in electroplating and also used in some precipitation reactions.
  • It is utilized as an additive in adhesives.
  • Copper sulfate serves as a coloring agent for glass, cement and ceramics.
  • This salt is also used in many chemistry sets for undertaking various experiments.

Public Health and Medicine

  • Copper sulfate is used as a fungicide not only in agriculture, but also as an antiseptic and germicide against fungal infections in humans.
  • Incorporating this salt in floor cleaning mixtures helps in preventing athlete’s foot in tropical countries.
  • Copper sulfate is used in the preparation of Paris green, to kill mosquito larvae that cause malaria.
  • It is used to keep algal blooms away, especially from the swimming pools and water reservoirs.
  • Copper sulfate helps in eradicating snails that harbor the parasite responsible for causing Schistosomiasis in humans.

Apart from the above uses of copper sulfate, this compound is also used in preparation of wood preservatives to protect timber from wood worms. It is also utilized as a mordant in dyeing, and as a reagent in tanning process. Moreover, growing crystals of this salt is one of the common science fair projects for middle school and high school children.

Copper sulphate poisioning




Common Priobiotic Strains and their Benefits


The information in this document is for educational and general purposes only and should not be construed as medical advice or a substitute for medical treatment. Readers should always consult appropriate and qualified health or medical professionals about specific medical problems and issues relating to personal wellbeing.

The author does not accept any responsibility for harm or loss which may result from failure to consult with the appropriate health authorities, and readers assume the risk of any such injuries that may arise from these circumstances.

Read Final Note as well…

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Probiotic Strains and Their Benefits

  1. Lactobacillus plantarum
    • Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS)
    • Cold and flu
    • Other immune system deficiencies

This bacterium helps you fight against getting sick by defending your system from invading viruses, moulds, toxins, etc.


  1. Lactobacillus rhamnosus
    • Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS)
    • Diarrhea
    • Lactose intolerance
    • Urinary tract infections
    • Other intestinal tract illnesses including stomach ulcers.

This strain of probiotic is known for its ability to survive through the harsh gastric acid and bile of the stomach – to make it through to the intestine and compete against bad bacteria.

It enhances the strength of your immune system by stimulating mucous production, inhibiting the growth of intestinal pathogens, and reducing inflammation in the intestines.


  1. Bifidobacterium bifidum
    • Constipation
    • Allergy symptoms
    • Digestive issues
    • Lactose intolerance

In addition to keeping your colon healthy and increasing your ability to absorb important nutrients, BB also reduces intestinal inflammation and competes with pathogens for adhesion to the intestinal cells to help make your immune system stronger. This is one of the four good bacteria species typically found in infants.


  1. Bifidobacterium infantis
    • Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS)
    • Gastroenteritis
    • Defends against pathogens such as Salmonella

A probiotic bacterium common in breast-fed infants, but which can also be found in teens and adults. It is known to successfully survive the trip through the stomach acids and bile and adhere to the intestinal tissues where it produces acetic acid and bacterocinlike substances, and some strains even produce B-vitamins such as thiamine, nicotinic acid, and folate. This is one of the four good bacteria species typically found in infants.


  1. Bidifobacterium longum
    • Ulcerative colitis
    • Intestinal inflammation
    • Vaginal flora balance
    • Constipation
    • Crohn’s disease
    • High cholesterol
    • Colon cancer

Like most strains, they are still discovering all the positive benefits of this bacteria. They do know that it will strengthen your immune system, improve your overall gut health, and can help with re-establishing beneficial vaginal flora.

Studies have led researchers to believe that B. longum may minimize the effects of or prevent a full range of other ailments and diseases.


  1. Lactobacillus reuteri
    • Eczema
    • Colic
    • Diarrhea
    • Rotavirus
    • Workplace sicknesses
    • Dental health issues
    • Female Urogenital Tract Infections
    • Constipation

These bacteria produce a unique broad-spectrum antibiotic substance called reuterin, which has been found to inhibit the growth of some harmful bacteria, along with yeasts, fungi, and protozoa, while keeping normal gut flora intact. In addition, reuterin has also been shown to suppress infections related to H. pylori (linked to peptic ulcers and gastric cancer). It is found naturally in some milk and meat products.


  1. Lactobacillus acidophilus
  • Acute, infectious diarrhea
  • Vaginal infections
  • Urinary tract infections

One of the most popular lactic bacteria, Lacidophilus is commonly used in foods such as yogurt and other dairy products. It works very well in combination with other probiotics to reduce the toxic effects of mould and yeast growth, and can prevent parasite growth in your intestinal tract.


  1. Lactobacillus casei
  • Constipation
  • Lactose intolerance
  • Crohn’s disease
  • Diarrhea

Casei occurs naturally in both your mouth and intestines, and helps support a healthy immune system. It can also reduce the rate and risk of bacterial infections. It has also been administered safely and with positive results to critically ill children suffering from diarrhea.


9. Lactobacillus helveticus

  • Bone mineral density
  • Blood pressure
  • Improved sleep
  • Stress relief
  • Calcium absorption
  • Diarrhea
  • Lactose intolerance
  • Allergies Found in many cheeses.

This lactic acid producing bacteria boasts a variety of health benefits, ranging from stimulating the immune and digestive systems to increasing bone density in post-menopausal women, to reducing arterial stiffness and blood pressure. It can also improve health by increasing the bioavailability of the nutrients in the body.


  1. Lactobacillus salivarius
  • Gum sensitivity
  • Plaque
  • Tooth and gum health
  • Chronic bad breath
  • Ulcers

In addition to the wide range of proven dental health benefits, L. salivarius is currently being tested and is believed to have the potential to improve immune system responses to colitis and septic shock.


  1. Pediococcus acidilactici
  • Stress relief
  • Digestive issues
  • Diarrhea
  • Constipation
  • Multiple Sclerosis relief

This bacterium can balance the bacteria in your gut to enhance your overall health and promote a healthier inflammatory response in the intestines. It can reduce and prevent unhealthy bacteria and parasites—like salmonella and E. coli from entering your intestinal tract. It is even believed that it can provide a supportive role in patients who are suffering from Multiple Sclerosis.


  1. Streptococcus thermophilus
  • Lactose intolerance
  • Colic
  • Digestive issues
  • Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS)
  • Diarrhea
  • Dermatitis
  • Ulcers

One of the two original strains used to make yogurt, this probiotic is still one of the most effective strains for boosting your immune system and improving your digestive health. It is currently being tested for limitless applications, especially for treating the causes and symptoms of cancer.

Pierre van Niekerk ©

Final Note

 Probiotic strains are constantly being tested to determine efficacy and indications in both humans and animals. The indications listed here are simply a representation of what the most recent testing has shown to be the likely benefits for each strain. There are no guarantees of efficacy for any probiotic ingredients.

The material and opinions expressed in this document are believed to be accurate based on the best judgment available to the author.

Whilst the information in this document is regularly updated and every attempt is made to ensure that the material is accurate, medical research is being continually published and thus some information may be out of date and/or may contain inaccuracies and typographical errors.

The following sources were consulted in the preparation of this list: https://medlineplus.gov, www.probiotics.org , www.mayoclinic.org, www.probioticsdb.com , and www.probiotics-lovethatbug.com

Probiotika: 1

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Die kos wat ons eet, moet ten doel hê om al die belangrike voedingstowwe te bevat om die liggaam in sy totaliteit te voed. Voeding word beskou as die bron en die boustene om die liggaam energie te verskaf, liggaamselle en organe te voed, herstel te laat plaasvind en die immuunsisteem te voed om sy werk te doen.


Voedsel wat ingeneem word, bestaan uit ‘n verskeidenheid molekules wat chemies en fisies aan mekaar verbind is. Die vertering en afbreek (verrotting) van voedsel in die spysverteringskanaal het ten doel om hierdie chemiese en fisiese verbindings af te breek in individuele voedingstowwe in so ‘n vorm dat die liggaam die verskillend nutriënte dit kan opneem.


Eenvoudig gestel beteken spysvertering dat voedsel afgebreek word tot in molekulêre vorms tot waar die liggaam instaat is om dit as voedsel op te neem.



Die meganika van die spysverteringstel, alhoewel eenvoudig verduideik, is in wese baie kompleks.

Digestive System Of Female Human The Digestive System - Biology Of Humans

Vertering vind in die spysverteringskanaal plaas. Die spysverteringskanaal strek van die mond, die slukderm, die maag, deur die dermkanale tot by die anus. Wat ook al geëet word, beweeg met prosesse deur die stelsel tot waar dit deur en in die dermkanaal opgeneem word. ‘n Lengte van ongeveer 9 meter, van die slukderm (esophagus) tot die anus.


Die dermkanaal dien as skild.

Die kos wat ingeneem word, moet eers deur die spysverteringskanaal opgebreek word in molekules voordat dit deur die dermkanaal opgeneem kan word. Kos wat dus ingeneem word, kan met die “skild” van die dermkanaal beskou word as nog “buite” die liggaam.



Deel van die spysverteringsproses is die selektiewe deurlaat van afgebreekte voedingstowwe deur die selwande van die dermkanaal. Vandaar beweeg dit deur die bloedstroom na alle selle van die liggaam, organe om orgaanfunksies te verseker, energie te verskaf, brein-en hormoonfunksies te stimuleer.


Een funksie wat beklemtoon kan word, is die herstel en vervanging van beseerde spiere en afgestorwe selle in die liggaam wat belangrike funksies vervul. As voorbeeld kan die vervanging van lewerselle genoem word, asook die vel, wat twee van die grootste organe in die liggaam is.


Die verteringsproses

Voedsel se molekulêre strukture vir opname deur die dermkanaal verskil in grootes en kom in verskillende strukture, verbindings en vorms voor.


‘n Eenvoudige verduideliking sou wees om in jou geestesoog ‘n klomp kettings van verskillende grotes en lengtes en vorms opgerol in chemiese verbindings wat die kettings vashou in ‘n bondel te sien.

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Spysvertering sou dan die proses wees om in menslike prosesse die bondel opgerolde ketting met meganiese en chemiese prosesse te ontrafel en oop te ontvou. Te ontrafel dat die molekulêre strukture alleen, enkel en apart van mekaar staan sodat dit opgeneem kan word.


Die mens sou in sy spsyverteringstelsel die ketting kou in stukke, meng met alkaliese speeksel, sluk en afbreek in die maag met swembadsuur in die maag, dan in die dermkanaal verder met ensieme opbreek, wat dan uiteindelik in ‘n nuwe ketting in ‘n nuwe vorm as boustene vir die liggaam verskyn.


Voedselsoorte het verskillende tipe molekules

Voedselstrukture bestaan uit verskillende komplekse molekules en ook soorte. Dit bestaan uit die groot molekules soos proteienes, stysels, middelgroote molekules soos vette en dan baie kleiner molekules soos vitamienes, minerale, suikers en phytonutriënte (plante se voedingstowwe), wat belangrike faktore van beskerming bevat vir die liggaam.


Die punt is, die liggaam vir goeie gesondheid al hierdie komplekse voedselstrukture se voedingstowwe nodig. Elke voedselsoort en elke molekule het eie unieke wyses en maniere waarop dit opgebreek moet word. voordat dit as voedsel of nutriënt deur die dermkanaal opgeneem kan word.



Die inname van proteiene, wat afgebreek word in die dermkanaal deur ensieme in aminosure, verskaf belangrike boustene in die liggaam se voortdurende proses van groei en herstel van die liggaam.


Die oorgrote meerderheid van die liggaam se strukturêle weefsel bestaan uit proteiene. Dit is die skelet, senings en ook weefsel. Vir die rede is die innaame van genoegsame hoeveelhede proteien vir hul gesondheid ‘n belangrike faktor. Proteiene is betrokke by  byna elke funksie van die liggaam.

Acid protection of probiotic bacteria via capsules


Ensieme is ook proteiene. Ensieme vervul feitlik elke funksie in die liggaam soos die herstel van beskadigde weefsel en ook die verwydering daarvan. Ensieme is ook boodskappers in die liggaam. Dit vervoer hormone van een plek na ‘n ander en is aktief in nodige selkommunikasie tussen selle van die liggaam se DNA.

Die liggaam het as lewende organisme nodig om voortdurend nuwe proteiene te vorm om uitgediende ensieme te vervang. Dit het ook die vorming van nuwe proteiene nodig om verouderde selle, beskadigde selle en beserings te heel.

Optimale gesondheid vereis dus ‘n aaneenlopende proses van proteienvorming en proteienvervanging. Proteiene word saamgestel deur kleiner molekules wat aminosure genoem word. Op molekulêre vlak kan een proteien opgebreek word in n string van aminosure wat wissel van so klein as 200 aminosure op ‘n string, tot 5000 daarvan.

Die maak van proteiene in die liggaam

Om ou en afgeleefde selle in die liggaam te vervang met nuwe selle, moet die liggaam aminosure gebruik as boublokke van die proteiene wat opgeneem word in die diëet. Wanneer proteien van verskillende bronne ingeneem word, moet die liggaam die groot aminosuurstringe of verbindigs neem en afbreek in aminosure, of peptides.


Aminosure, ook genoem petides, moet in een tot twee molekules (dipeptides) afgebreek word om deur die liggaam opgeneem te kan word.


Die liggaam vervaarding ensieme wat protease genoem word wat proteiene wat ingeneem word afbreek in aminosure. Proteiene verloor sy struktuur in die maag met behulp van maagsuur en pepsien.

Vandaar beweeg die afgebreekte proteienbron deur die maagklep in die dunderm in (duedenum), waar nog ensieme en of protease plaasvind. Aminosure en dipeptides word in hierdie vorm in middelderms of jejenum opgeneem.


Pierre van Niekerk ©




Jou gewone gelukkige woef lyk skielik deurmekaar en onstabiel.  Dan val hy/sy op die vloer neer.  Alhoewel hy bewusteloos is, lyk dit of hy ‘water trap’.  Hy is besig om ‘n aanval te kry.  Hoekom gebeur dit?  Wat kan jy doen?

Indien jou dier dikwels sulke aanvalle kry, kan hy moontlik aan ‘n wanfunksie ly.  ‘n Ander naam daarvoor is epilepsie.  Abnormale, onbeheerde sarsies van elektriese aktiwiteit in jou hond se brein veroorsaak aanvalle, en dit beinvloed hoe hy lyk en hoe hy optree.  Aanvalle kan lyk soos ‘n “twitch” of onbeheerbare rukking/bewerasie en kan van minder as ‘n minuut tot etlike minute duur.

Wat kan aanvalle in honde veroorsaak

  • Die eet van gif
  • Lewer siekte
  • Lae of hoë bloedsuiker vlakke
  • Niersiekte
  • Elektroliet probleme
  • Anemie
  • Kopbeserings
  • Enkefalitis (ook ensefalitis of harsingontsteking)
  • Beroerte
  • Breinkanker

Wat is die simptome van aanvalle

Simptome kan insluit platval, rukkings, verstywing, spiertrekkings, verlies van bewussyn, kwyl, kners, kou van tong or skuim by die mond.  Honde kan eenkant toe val en peuter bewegings met die bene maak.  Soms kan hulle poef of piepie gedurende die aanval.  Sommige honde kan verdwaald lyk, deurmekaar en onvas op hull voete, of lyk of hulle in die niet staar voor ‘n aanval.

Na die tyd mag hul disorienteerd wees, onvas op die voete or tydelik blind.  Hul mag in sirkels beweeg en in goed vasloop.  Hul kan baie kwyl op die ken hê en bloeding in die mond as hy homself raakgebyt het.  Hy mag ook probeer om weg te kruip.

Watter soort aanvalle is daar

Dis mees algemene aanval is ‘n algemene aanval, ook bekend as ‘n “grand mal seizure”.  ‘n Hond kan sy bewussyn verloor en konvulsies ervaar.  Die abnormale elektriese aktiwiteit gebeur reg deur die brein.  Algemene aanvalle duur tussen ‘n paar sekondes en etlike minute.  ‘n Tipiese ‘grand mal seizure’ word voorafgegaan deur ‘n tydperk van veranderde gedrag, genoem die ‘aura’.  Gedurende die ‘aura’ kan honde rusteloos en angstig wees, huil, aandring op aandag of afsondering verkies.  Die eintlike aanval duur gewoonlik minder as 2 minute en word gekenmerk deur ineenstorting met rigiede ‘uitsprei’ van die bene.  Die hond verloor sy bewussyn en mag vir 10-30 sekondes ophou asemhaal.  Dit word gevolg deur ritmiese rukkings van die bene (asof hy hardloop of swem).  Sommige diere sal ook kners, kou, kwyl of urineer en ontlas.  Soos wat die hond sy bewussyn herwin is daar ‘n post-aanval periode van disorientasie en verwarring.  Hy mag in mure vasloop en blind voorkom.  Die post-aanval periode kan vir minute of ure duur.  ‘Grand mal seizures’ is tipies van epilepsie.

Met ‘n ‘brandpunt’ aanval gebeur abnormale elektriese aktiwiteit slegs in ‘n gedeelte van die brein.  Brandpunt aanvalle kan abnormale beweging in ‘n ledemaat of aan een kant van die liggaam tot gevolg hê.  Dit duur gewoonlik net ‘n paar sekondes.  Die aanval kan ook begin as ‘n ‘brandpunt’ aanval en oorgaan na ‘n algemene aanval.  ‘n Brandpunt motoriese of gedeeltelike aanval is een waar die rukking of bewing beperk is (ten minste aanvanklik) tot ‘n spesifieke deel van die liggaam.  ‘n Brandpunt aanval toon gewoonlik ‘n spesifieke brein letsel soos ‘n litteken, tumor of abses.

Aanvalle word algemeen verbind met ‘n brein besering, enkefalitis, hittesteek, brein abses, brein tumor, beroerte, vergiftiging, nierversaking of lewerversaking.  Aanvalle wat geassosieer word met harsingskudding gebeur dikwels weke of maande na die kopbesering en word veroorsaak deur ‘n focus van littekenweefsel in die brein.

Post-enkefalitiese aanvalle geskied 3-4 weke na die aanvang van enkefalitis.  Hondesiekte, spesifiek, word gekenmerk deur aanvalle wat begin met kners, tong kou, skuim by die mond, kop skud en oë knip, alles gevolg deur ‘n verdwaasde kyk.

Post-inenting aanvalle was al beskryf in honde jonger as 6 weke, na inenting met ‘n gekombineerde hondesiekte/parvo virus inenting.  Met huidige inenting is sulke gevalle baie skaars.

‘n Psigomotoriese aanval behels eienaardige gedrag wat slegs ‘n paar minute kan duur.  You hond mag skielik begin om ‘n denkbeeldige voorwerp aan te val of sy stert begin jag.  Dit kan moeilik wees om psigomotoriese aanvalle te onderskei deur eienaardige gedrag maar die hond wat hierdie tipe aanvalle kry sal elke keer dieselfde reageer tydens so ‘n aanval.

Aanvalle as gevolg van onbekende oorsake word genoem idiopatiese epilepsie.  Dis ‘n versteuring van die sentrale senuweestelsel en gebeur gewoonlik met honde tussen 6 maande en 6 jaar oud.  Alhoewel enige hond ‘n aanval kan kry, is idiopatiese epilepsie meer algemeen met kolliehonde, Australiese skaaphonde, Labrador ‘retrievers’, beagles, Belgiese Tervurens, kollies en Duitse skaaphonde.

‘n Teef mag lae bloed kalsium vlakke ontwikke na kraam en aanvalle kry.  ‘n Skielike verlaging in bloedsuiker (hipoglisemie) kan ook ‘n aanval veroorsaak.  Dit gebeur met pasgebore babas wat aan kardiopulmonêre sindroom ly.  Dit kan ook gebeur in klein rasse wat nie genoegsame voeding gekry het nie.  ‘n Algemene oorsaak van hipoglisemie is ‘n diebetiese hond wat te veel insulien gegee word.

Algemene gifstowwe wat aanvalle veroorsaak is diere aas soos strignien, ‘antifreeze’ (etileenglikol), lood, insekdoders (organofosfate) en sjokolade.  Aanvalle wat deur organofosfate veroorsaak word, word voorafgegaan deur kwyl en spiertrekkings.  Blootstelling aan ‘n sproei, dip of uitgangspunt behandeling stel die diagnose voor.

Daar is ‘n aantal toestande wat, alhoewel nie ware aanvalle, dikwels raakgesien word as sulks.  Bysteek, byvoorbeeld, kan erge verwoede blaf veroorsaak, gevolg deur floute of ineenstorting.

Hartaritmieë kan foutiewelik aangesien word vir aanvalle omdat dit bewussynsverlies en ineenstorting veroorsaak.

Wat jy kan doen wanneer jou hond ‘n aanval kry

Belangrikste – bly kalm!  As jou hond naby enigiets is wat hom kan beseer, soos meubels of trappe, probeer hom sagkens wegbeweeg na ‘n veiliger area.  Bly weg van sy kop en veral sy bek want hy kan jou probeer byt.  Moet asseblief niks in sy mond sit nie – honde kan nie verstik op hul tonge nie.  As jy kan, bereken die tydsduur van die aanval.

Indien die aanval langer as ‘n paar minute duur, kan jou hond oorverhit.  Sit ‘n waaier aan om hom koeler te hou en ook koue water op sy voete om hom verder af te koel.  Praat saggies met hom en raak hom liggies aan om hom te vertroos.  Kontak jou veearts sodra die aanval ophou.

Indien jou hond ‘n aanval kry wat langer as 5 minute duur of hy het etlike op ‘n ry terwyl hy bewusteloos is, neem hom dringend na ‘n veearts.  Hoe langer ‘n aanval duur, hoe hoër is ‘n hond se risiko dat sy liggaamshitte te hoog styg en hy probleme ondervind met asemhaling.  Dit kan sy risiko van breinskade verhoog.  Jou veearts sal hom heel moontlik binneaarse Valium toedien om die aanval te stop.

Wat kan ek verwag wanneer ek my hond veearts toe neem

Jou veearts sal ‘n deeglike fisiese ondersoek wil doen asook sekere laboratoriese toetse onderneem om vas te stel wat die aanvalle veroorsaak.  Die veearts mag medisyne voorskryf om die aanvalle te beheer soos Phenobarbital of Potassium Bromide.

Jy kan jou hond twee keer ‘n dag Phenobarbital gee maar oor ‘n tydperk kan dit lewerskade veroorsaak.  Honde wat Phenobarbital behandeling ontvang moet elke ses maande vir bloedtoetse gaan.

Potassium Bromide werk nie deur die lewer nie, wat dit dus ‘n beter keuse maak vir jong honde wat lewenslank behandeling moet ontvang.

Volg altyd jou veearts se instruksies baie noukeurig wanneer jy jou hond medisyne toedien.  Moet geensins toelaat dat enige dosis oorgeslaan word nie.

Pierre van Niekerk © 2015