SNUFFELS BY KATTE

Dis die algemene naam vir aansteeklike asemhalingsiektes (verkoue, konjunktivitis, boonste lugweg infeksie) by katte. Die simptome word deur ‘n verskeidenheid van virusse veroorsaak, waarvan die Feline Herpes-virus (nie dieselfde een wat mense aantas nie) die groot oorsaak is van Snuffels en kan groot ulkusse in die oë en slymvliese van katte veroorsaak.

‘n Inenting daarteen is beskikbaar en dit moet jaarliks toegedien word as jy seker wil wees dat jou kat gesond bly, veral in die geval van opregte katte soos Siamees en Persies.

Doen spesifiek navraag oor die inenting.

Simptome
• Die siekte begin gewoonlik vinnig en duur twee tot vier weke. Die graad varieer van net ‘n bietjie nies en seer oë tot dodelike longontsteking.
• Die koors is gewoonlik hoog, maar dit kan wissel.
• Die oë traan of kan selfs etterig wees. By jong katjies kan die konjunktivitis só erg wees dat hul oë heeltemal toegegom is met etter.
• In sommige gevalle kan volwasse katte sinusitis kry wat maande of jare daarna probleme veroorsaak.
• In ligte gevalle behou die kat sy eetlus. As hy ophou om te eet is dit baie belangrik om hom so gou moontlik veearts toe te neem vir behandeling.

Behandeling
• Die siekte is hoogs aansteeklik en die meeste goeie veeartse sal nie so ‘n geval in hul hospitaal opneem nie. Jy sal dus elke dag moet teruggaan vir inspuitings.
• Katte wat weier om te eet, kan dehidreer en doodgaan as gevolg van nierversaking.

Mediese behandeling is noodsaaklik in hierdie gevalle.
• As jou kat kwaai nies, maar nog eet en gesond lyk, kan jy stoom gebruik, net soos jy met babas doen, om die lugweë te laat ooptrek.
• Jy kan ook sy dosis vitamien A verhoog deur hom ‘n paar druppels lewertraanolie te gee of ‘n halwe bak gaar hoenderlewers te voer. Maar pas op vir te veel vitamien A, dit kan dodelik wees vir ‘n kat.

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• Kolostrum is ook ‘n immuniteit “booster paste” vir katte wat die Feline Herpes virus het, en kan as ‘n daaglikse aanvulling gegee word en eetlus aan te help
• Cipla Actin (goedkoop by enige apteek en sonder voorskrif) is ‘n anti-histamien vir mense maar gee diere ‘n eetlus. Ongeveer ‘n halwe tablet per 5 kg. Veearts sal dit aanbeveel.
• Die meeste diere is mal oor kolostrum en hulle eet al hul kos op as daar kolostrum oor gestrooi is.
• Vir ‘n kat wat siek is en nie wil eet nie – smeer die medisyne net aan sy pels. Hul lek dit gewoonlik self af en kry dit sodoende in.

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Blommetjie Mieks 1

Die huidige Blommetjie Mieks, asook die verbeterde een wat hopelik vroeg in 2019 vrygestel gaan word, is ‘n 100% natuurlike blomolie mengsel van natuurlike chrysantium plante (wat in die volksmond as asters en soms asNamakwalandse daisies beskrywe word.

pyrethrum-250x250

Die plantgroepe in die crysantium familie word eers gedroog en vandaar word die olie uit die blom onttrek. Die plante wat hiervoor gekies word, is die Chrysanthemum cinerariifolium en Chrysanthemum coccineum. Die toksisiteit van die plante se olie verhoog namate die plante hoër geplant word op hoogte van seespieël.

Die aktief in die olie staan bekend as “Pyrethrum.” Die olie word dan in verskeie middels verwerk om hoogs suksesvolle natuurlike vlieg en insekbeheer te bewerkstellig.

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Vrystelling in sommige lande

Natuurlike pyrehrum het ‘n baie lae toksisiteit. Word in lande soos Australië en Swede vrygestel van die term wat dit as giftig vir mens en dier beskrywe.

Pyrethrum word wêreldwyd ook verkies as Produk Nr 1 by botaniste en omgewingsbewaarders. By mense wat organiese groente groei vir persoonlike gebruik en, natuurlike beheermiddels met lae tot geen skadelike residu wil gebruik.

Ook omdat natuurlike pyrethrum ‘n baie lae toksisteit by warmbloedige soos hul troeteldiere en wilde voëls.

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Lang nawerking

Pyrethrum het NIE ‘n lang doodmaak nawerking nie. Dit word omdat dit ‘n natuurlike plantolie produk is, natuurlik deur die son se ultravioletstrale afgebreek na ‘n organiese nul toe.  Laat geen skade in die grond of op die dier na nie. Het by afbreking ook geen residu-waardes nie.

Alhoewel meeste mense produkte wil hê met lang nawerking, is natuurlike pyrethrum se kortwerkende voordeel hierin dat insekte en teikenspesies peste nie weerstandigheid daarteen kan opbou nie. Hul vrek elke keer as hul daaraan blootgestel word.

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Ses Esters

Natuurlike Pyrethrum bevat ook ses esters. In kort beteken dit dat dit insekte wat hieraan blootgestel word, op ses verskillende maniere doodgemaak word. En, voor die oningeligte persoon hom weer morsdood skrik oor ‘n ester, laat my toe om dit in Engels te plaas sodat hul dit onafhanklik kan gaan opsoek. Daar is letterik derduisende esters.

An ester : “The odors of flowers and the odors and flavors of fresh fruits are a result of a complex mixture of many chemical compounds, but one of the major constituents is a type of compound called an ester. An ester is a compound formed from the reaction between a carboxylic acid and an alcohol with the loss of the water molecule.”

Esters word in warmbloedige diere soos mense, varke, honde, katte en voëls se spysverteringstelsels baie vinnig gehidroliseer na ‘n niksseggende afvalproduk. Met geen skade of nagevolge van ‘n soort nie. Word gewoon deur die liggaam skadeloos uitgeskei.

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Opsommend

Pyrethrum het ‘n baie lang geskiedenis van veiligheid by mens en dier. Die ander groepe van pestisiedes het nie. Dit is nie die plek en of taak om groepe met mekaar te vergeyk om die waarde van pyretrum bokant ander produkte plaas nie. Die ingeligte en persoon wat omgee en lees sal dit self doen en oplees en opsoek en daaop die ingeligte besluit neem.

Short Residual Activity: Pyrethrum is quickly broken down by sunlight therefore a limited time span of low mammalian toxicity usually associated with certain other classes of persistent insecticides.

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Sensitiewe plekke soos skole, kleuterskole, hospitale, ouetehuise kan pyrethrum produkte met groot veilgheid gebruik omdat dit geen swaar reuke het nie, nie aan inwonders skade doen nie en nie allergiese reaksies veroorsaak by sensitiewe kinders, kankerpasiente easook oumense nie.

Blommetjie mieks

  • Is 100% natuurlik en natuurlike plantolies wat as aktief aangebeid word.
  • Dit het n baie vinnige reaksie. Die aktief van die blomolie ontwrig die insek se senustelsel wat op hul beurt na n string reaksies waarby die senuwees betrokke is, die dier ontwring en sy dood veroorsaak.
  • Die senustelsel is betrokke by bloedvloei, spysvertering, asemhaling, hartklop, spysvertering van die insek.
  • Pyrethrum het nie die onmiddelike doodskop en doodmaak reaksie soos by gif wat in blikke verkoop word nie. Vlieg moet daarop sit om van die gif deur die suiers op sy pote op te neem en dan oombikke later disgoriënteerd raak en natuurlik elders vrek.
  • Pyrethrum lok veral muskiete vanuit hul wegkruipplekke en het n hormoon-ontwrigtingseffek by wyfie muskiete. Dit blyk dat hul so deurmekaar raak dat hul onnatuurlik optree en nie bloedmaal soek nie.
  • Insekte vrek natuurlik baie gou met blootstelling aan pyrethrum.
  • Dit blyk dat die onnatuurlike gedrag by muskiete is weens verlamming wat intree by die monddele wat tot verhondering en vrekte lei.
  • Natuurlike pyrethrum het ook ‘n walgingseffek vir insekte.
  • Alhoewel dit vir die menslike sintuie aangenaam ruik weens die ester effek wat binne die Blommetjie mieks mengsel ingebied is.

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Natuurlike pyrethrum kan natuurlik baie spesifiek aangewend word.

  • Op plante
  • Word wêreldwyd op mense en diere gebruik
  • Op oppervlaktes wat nie direkte sonlig ontvang nie
  • By die voorbereiding van teetafels waar koek en soetgoed aanloklik is
  • Op kombuise se werksoppervlaktes waar vlieë peste is
  • By slaghuise waar daar met vleis gewerk word
  • By melkerye se verkoopspunte
  • Op kalwers in kalwerhokke

Dit word juis gebruik omdat dit in die Blommetjiemieks formaat by geen of weglaatbare giftige blootstelling aan mens en dier se onmiddelike omgewing kan meebring en omdat dit bewysbaar ‘n weglaatbare toksisiteit het vir soogdiere.

Anders dan sintetiese piretroide, wat ‘n produk is wat vanuit natuurlike pyrethrum ontwikkel is, is weerstandigheid van Blommetjie Mieks by teikeninsekte pyrethrum nie ‘n probleem of moontlikheid nie weens sy kort nawerking.

 

Akademiese Agtergrond Studie oor Blommetjie Mieks I en II SE samestelling.

1. Introduction

Pyrethrum refers to the Pyrethrum daisy (Chrysanthemum cinerariifolium) from which the insecticidal compound is extracted. Also nicknamed Dalmatian chrysanthemum, this perennial daisy is loaded with chemicals called pyrethrins that are toxic to insects.

Pyrethrum was a genus of several Old World plants now classified as Chrysanthemum or Tanacetum which are cultivated as ornamentals for their showy flower heads. Pyrethrum continues to be used as a common name for plants formerly included in the genus Pyrethrum

The powdered flower heads of T. coccineum and C. cinerariifolium are chief sources of the insecticide. The active substances in pyrethrums are contact poisons for insects and cold-blooded vertebrates. The concentrations of pyrethrum powder used in insecticides are nontoxic to plants, birds, and mammals; therefore, these insecticides find wide use in household and livestock sprays as well as in dusts for edible plants.

Naturally derived pyrethrin insecticides are an important means of chemical control in organic farming. Synthetic pyrethrin compounds, known as pyrethroids, have been developed. Both synthetic and non-synthetic pyrethrins can accumulate in water and wetland sediments and are toxic to fish and aquatic invertebrates. – The Editors of Encyclopedia Britannica

Ocular side effects: Local ophthalmic use or exposure

  • Keratitis
  • Irritative conjunctivitis
  • Allergic conjunctivitis
  • Corneal abrasions.

Clinical significance: From the WHO and the National Registry, there are 54 reports of keratitis and 19 reports of irritative conjunctivitis from topical use of pyrethrum, which presumably got into the eye of the patients inadvertently. From the available data, all adverse reactions were immediate and resolved after 1–2 days after discontinuation of the product.

Clinical Ocular Toxicology | ScienceDirect
2. Pyrethrins: Pyrethrin I, II, cinerin I, II, jasmolin I, II.

  • Pyrethrum extract is obtained from the flower heads of Chrysanthemum cinerariaefolium and consists of a mixture of esters.
  • The esters are unstable in the presence of ultraviolet light and are rapidly metabolized and inactivated by both insects and mammals.
  • The inclusion of mixed-function oxidase inhibitors (such as PBO) in pyrethrin formulations enhances their longevity and insecticidal efficacy.

Mammalian sensitivity to pyrethrum exposure

  • Selective toxicity of the pyrethroids has traditionally been attributed to differences in metabolism between arthropods and mammals
  • Experimental evidence suggests that mammalian nerves have reduced sensitivity of around 250-fold (lower intrinsic sensitivity (10×) and lower sensitivity at mammalian body temperature (5×) combined with faster recovery time (5×)) which must be multiplied by a more rapid detoxification (9×)

The reduced sensitivity is related to enzyme activity and body size differences, which bring a total differential reduced sensitivity of approximately 2000 times.

Stephen W Page, in Small Animal Clinical Pharmacology (Second Edition), 2008, https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/book/9781416046738

3. Mechanism of action

  • Pyrethrins have rapid knockdown activity against susceptible flying insects and fleas and a separate delayed lethal effect.
  • Knockdown effects are almost immediate and thought to be due to excessive sensory hyperactivity of the peripheral nervous system.
  • Resistance to this action is due to selection of a target site with altered amino acid sequence and insensitive to pyrethrin binding.
  • The pyrethroids slow the kinetics of both opening and closing of individual sodium channels, resulting in delayed and prolonged ion channel opening.
  • This causes prolongation of the whole-cell sodium current during a depolarizing pulse and marked slowing of the tail sodium current upon repolarization.
  • Pyrethroids also cause a shift of the activation voltage in the direction of hyperpolarization.
  • These changes in sodium channel kinetics lead to membrane depolarization and an increase in depolarizing after-potential.
  • The latter reaches the threshold for excitation, causing repetitive after-discharges.
  • The membrane depolarization of sensory neurons increases discharge frequency and that of nerve terminals increases the release of transmitter and the frequency of spontaneous miniature postsynaptic potentials.

    4. Neurotoxicity of Pyrethrins and Pyrethroid Insecticide

Pyrethrum is the product prepared from ground flowers of Chrysanthemum species by extraction with organic solvents. It consists of six related esters derived from two acids and three alcohols.

  • The proportion of each varies depending upon the strain of flower, conditions of culture, and method of extraction and concentration (O’Brien 1967; Ray 1991).
  • Pyrethrins decompose rapidly in light to inactive compounds. They are liquids at room temperature, are insoluble in water but are soluble in many organic solvents. They undergo rapid hydrolysis in water, particularly in the presence of acid or alkali.
  • They are primarily contact poisons and penetrate chitin rapidly. They have almost no activity when given orally because they are so readily hydrolyzed to inactive products.
  • Pyrethroids are synthetic compounds that resemble pyrethrins in insecticidal activity but are chemically much more stable. Their chemistry is complex and has been reviewed by Ray (1991).

5. Pyrethrum background

Also known as Dalmatian (or, inaccurately, Persian) insect powder, represents the dried flowers of the daisy-like herbaceous perennial Tanacetum (Chrysanthemum) cinerariaefolium (Compositae) growing naturally along the east coast of the Adriatic Sea.

It is the source of the economically most important botanical insecticides (Casida and Quistad, 1995a). The insecticidal properties of the flowers were discovered in Dalmatia, where the first commercial production of the plant began in 1840. The crop was later introduced in Japan, Kenya, Tanzania, China, Ecuador, New Guinea, Australia, Tasmania, and the United States. Since the early 1940s, the major producer of pyrethrum and pyrethrum extract has been Kenya providing about two-thirds of the world’s production.
The insecticidal ingredients are called pyrethrins; they accumulate in the achenes of the flower heads and amount to 1–2% of the dried flower. The harvesting of flowers is labor intensive, but efforts to produce pyrethrins in tissue cultures on a large scale have not been fruitful (Jovetić and de Gooijer, 1995).

6. Characteristics

The key structural features of pyrethrins were recognized by Staudinger and Ruzicka in 1924 and the structures of all six insecticidal esters were clarified in the subsequent decades (reviewed by Crombie, 1995; Elliott and Janes, 1973; Matsui and Yamamoto, 1971).

The exceptional biological properties and the lack of stability of the natural pyrethrins prompted many groups to find more stable synthetic analogs and these efforts eventually led to the development of numerous pyrethroid insecticides having a broad activity spectrum, excellent selectivity, and improved field stability (Elliott, 1996; Henrick, 1995).

Mammalian toxicity studies as well as the experience of use for over a century demonstrate that pyrethrins are among the safest insecticides.

István Ujváry, in Hayes’ Handbook of Pesticide Toxicology (Third Edition), 2010; Pest Control Agents from Natural Products – ScienceDirect

7. Pyrethrins and Pyrethroids

  • Pyrethrum is one of the oldest natural insecticides in use in the world today, and it has one of the best safety records of all insecticides.
  • It is a mixture of several esters, called pyrethrins, which are extracted from flowers belonging to the genus Chrysanthemum.
  • Natural pyrethrins are unstable to light and are therefore unsuitable for residual application, particularly in agriculture.
  • This led to the development of several classes of related synthetic compounds which have a higher stability to light and a high insecticidal activity. They are known as pyrethroids.
  • In general, pyrethroids can be toxicologicaly divided into two classes on the basis of signs of toxicity: those causing mainly tremor and prostration (T syndrome) and
    those causing choreoathetosis and salivation (CS syndrome).
  • For both groups, the main biological activity is mediated through the effect on sodium channels along the axon membrane of the nerves, in both insects and mammals.
  • The effect on the sodium-exchange disturbance is fully reversible, the duration of which is different for the two classes of pyrethroids: compounds belonging to the group causing the T syndrome produce a considerably shorter effect on the sodium ‘gate’ openings than those belonging to the CS group.
  • Being highly lipophilic, pyrethroids readily pass through cell membranes and are absorbed into the body by all routes following exposure.
  • However, the ratio of the toxic dose by the oral route to that of intravenous injection is very high; this is because of rapid detoxification, mainly by cleaving of the ester bond by esterases.
  • Present-day evidence indicates that doses of a pyrethroid likely to be encountered both in the workplace and through food consumption would not lead to any serious untoward effects, although reversible transient effects on the skin may be recorded and may be used as a warning response of inadvertent exposure.

R. Pleština, in Encyclopedia of Food Sciences and Nutrition (Second Edition), 2003 PESTICIDES AND HERBICIDES | Types of Pesticide – ScienceDirect

8. Toxicology and Human Environments: Pyrethrum

  • The insecticidal extract of the pyrethrum flower Pyrethrum (Chrysanthemum cinerariaefolium) is known as pyrethrins.
  • Of the six insecticidal constituents of the extract of the pyrethrum flowers Pyrethrum (Chrysanthemum) cinerariae (folium), pyrethrins I and II are most prominent, existing in the ratio 71:21:7 for pyrethrin (I and II), cinerin (I and II), and jasmolin (I and II).
  • Pyrethrins are potent, non-systemic, contact insecticides, causing rapid paralysis or knockdown and death at a later stage in a variety of insects.
  • They exhibit low vertebrate toxicity with an acute oral LD50 in rats of 1.2 g/kg.
    The mechanism of action involves modification of nerve membrane Na+ channels. Opening and closing of the Na+ channel is slowed, resulting in increased Na+ permeability and depolarization leading to hyperexcitability.

    Ernest Hodgson, in Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science, 2012, Toxins and Venoms – ScienceDirect

Blousel as raad se gevare

BLOUSEL – DIE SISTEMIESE GEBRUIK

Blousel staan ook bekend as “blue vitriol” ( blou vieterjoel) en “blue stone”. Die aktiewe bestanddeel in blousel is koper sulfaat.

Daar is werklik ‘n wrede outydse geloof dat blousel, wat ook vir die bleik van klere gebruik word, skdaeloos is wanneer dit vir n dier ingegee word. Dit vernietig die totale biologiese maagbioom waar mens en dier se gesondheid begin en steriliseer juis die bakterie at gesondheid en lewe moet en by begin.

Hieronder die uiteensetting van die gevare van inwendige gebruik, per ongeluk of doelbewus.  Koper sulfaat word vandag nog gebruik in die volgende industrieë:

Onkruiddoders   Swamdoders   Insekdoders   Analitiese reagente   Organiese sintese   Chemiese opleiding   Kuns   Ets werk   Kleurstowwe

Kopersulfaat was in die mediese veld gebruik as braakmiddel.  Dit word nou gesien as te toksies vir gebruik hiervoor.  Dit is steeds gelys as ‘n teenmiddel by die “World Health Organization’s Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System.”

Sien die verdere beskrywing van toksikologie hieronder en let asb daarop dat so min as 1 gram koper sulfaat reeds erge newe effekte kan hê.

“Toxicological effects Copper sulfate is an irritant.  The usual routes by which humans can receive toxic exposure to copper sulfate are through eye or skin contact, as well as by inhaling powders and dusts.

Skin contact may result in itching or eczema.  Eye contact with copper sulfate can cause conjunctivitis, inflammation of the eyelid lining, ulceration, and clouding of the cornea.  Upon oral exposure, copper sulfate is only moderately toxic.

According to studies, the lowest dose of copper sulfate that had a toxic impact on humans is 11 mg/kg.  Because of its irritating effect on the gastrointestinal tract, vomiting is automatically triggered in case of the ingestion of copper sulfate.  However, if copper sulfate is retained in the stomach, the symptoms can be severe.  After 1–12 grams of copper sulfate are swallowed, such poisoning signs may occur as a metallic taste in the mouth, burning pain in the chest, nausea, diarrhoea, vomiting, headache and discontinued urination which leads to yellowing of the skin.  In cases of copper sulfate poisoning injury to the brain, stomach, liver, or kidneys may also occur.”

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Copper%28II%29_sulfate

Copper sulfate, also known as ‘blue stone’ or ‘blue vitriol’, is a chemical compound that is used in a wide range of industries. The basic chemical formula of blue vitriol is ‘CuSO4‘, but the salt exists as a series of different compounds, depending on the degree of hydration. ‘Chalcocite’, the anhydrous form of copper sulfate, occurs as a rare mineral and exists as a pale green or grayish-white powder.
The various hydrated forms of copper sulfate include trihydrates, pentahydrates, and heptahydrates. However, copper sulfate pentahydrate (CuSO4.5H2O) is the most commonly found salt. It is bright blue in color and is known as ‘chalcanthite’. This color of the crystals is due to the presence of water of crystallization, and is the best way to distinguish between the anhydrous and hydrated forms.

Copper sulfate can be prepared in the laboratory by reacting various compounds of copper (II) with sulfuric acid. However, it is commercially available on a large-scale basis, and is an economic source of Cu. Copper sulfate pentahydrate readily dissolves in water and is also soluble in methanol, glycerol, and to some extent in ethanol. When the blue crystals of copper sulfate are heated in an open flame, they get dehydrated and turn grayish white.

Uses

Copper sulfate is a versatile chemical compound having a wide range of applications in agriculture, as well as pharmaceutical and chemical industries.

Agriculture

  • Copper sulfate pentahydrate is commonly used as a fungicide to control various bacterial and fungal diseases of crops, fruits, and vegetables, such as mildew, leaf spots, blights, and apple scab.
  • Mixture of copper sulfate and ammonium carbonate, known as Chestnut compound, is used as a soil sterilizer or in horticulture to prevent seedlings from getting damp.
  • It is used in the preparation of Bordeaux mixture, along with lime, which is utilized for leaf application and seed treatment for treating fungal diseases on grapes, melons, and other berries.
  • Copper sulfate pentahydrate is used as a molluscicide, to repel and kill slugs and snails.
  • It as an algaecide to prevent algal growth.

Chemical Industry

  • Copper sulfate is often used in the preparation of catalysts for several reactions in many industries.
  • The anhydrous form of this salt catalyzes many processes like the transacylation in organic synthesis.
  • It is used in purification of gases by removal of hydrogen chloride and hydrogen sulfide.
  • The application of copper sulfate in preparation of dyestuff intermediates and catalyzing the synthesis of diazo compounds and pthalocyanine dyes is very common.
  • Copper sulfate is used as an electrolyte in electroplating and also used in some precipitation reactions.
  • It is utilized as an additive in adhesives.
  • Copper sulfate serves as a coloring agent for glass, cement and ceramics.
  • This salt is also used in many chemistry sets for undertaking various experiments.

Public Health and Medicine

  • Copper sulfate is used as a fungicide not only in agriculture, but also as an antiseptic and germicide against fungal infections in humans.
  • Incorporating this salt in floor cleaning mixtures helps in preventing athlete’s foot in tropical countries.
  • Copper sulfate is used in the preparation of Paris green, to kill mosquito larvae that cause malaria.
  • It is used to keep algal blooms away, especially from the swimming pools and water reservoirs.
  • Copper sulfate helps in eradicating snails that harbor the parasite responsible for causing Schistosomiasis in humans.

Apart from the above uses of copper sulfate, this compound is also used in preparation of wood preservatives to protect timber from wood worms. It is also utilized as a mordant in dyeing, and as a reagent in tanning process. Moreover, growing crystals of this salt is one of the common science fair projects for middle school and high school children.

Copper sulphate poisioning

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18407869

 

 

Blommetjie Mieks Proewe

Pierre@Dieregesondheid Blommetjie Mieks

Die produk is tans onder verdere toetsing by Toetslaboratoriums. Dit sal met die resultate aansoek doen vir bykomende registrasies in terme van Wet 36 van 1947 by die nodige owerhede.

In verskeie lande soos Australië en Swede is die aktief heeltemal vrygestel van enige Registrasies van hul owerhede.

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Volledige name en Literatuurverwysings wat hierdie produk se onderbou demonstreer is, sal met registrasie omslagtig beskrywe word.

  1. Doel van die Produk

Om ‘n natuurlike produk te gebruik wat die laagste moontlike gevaar tot moontlike vergiftiging het het vir mens en dier. Die aktief moet natuurlik wees. Versoenbaar met die Natuur, grond en die verbruiker.

Foto-eienaar onbekend.

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Gevolg

  • Die aktief wat gevind is, het baie lang veiligheidsrekord van beproefde veiligheid teenoor mens en dier.
  • Dit word wêreldwyd gereken as een van die produkte wat die veiligste is van natuurlike produkte in die Klas: Huishoudelike Pestisiedes.
  • Sou dit per abuis ingeneem word, metaboliseer dit vinnig in die warmbloedige liggaam met min tot geen skadelike nagevolge nie.
  • Toestresultate het bevind dat die aktief se toksiese impak 4000 keer laer is vir ‘n rot, as wat dit vir n huisvlieg sou wees.
  • In die toetse kon rotte nie vergiftig word of enige kliniese tekens toon van vergiftiging, of enige nagevolge daarvan toon in die lewer en of mistoetse nie.

Culex_pipiens_diagram_en.svg

  1. Produk moet baie lae weerstandigheid teen die aktief toon

Die aktief of doodmaakmolekule wat geselekteer is, het weens sy kort nawerking ‘n baie lae weerstandsrekord by insekte. Boonop is sy natuurlike molekulêre struktuur so kompleks dat weerstandigheid nie ‘n wesenlike probleem kan word nie.

  • Weerstandigheid teen die doodmaakmiddel en aktiewe van insektisiedes, word algemeen aangeteken in die Literatuur. Insektisiedes is vir sespootige diere  (Korrekte uitdrukking is 3 paar pote) soos vlieë, kakkerlakke, kop en pubiese luise, miere, muggies, vrugtevlieë en vele ander peste op plante.
  • Daar is ook in die landbou wye weerstandigheid aangeteken teen beheermiddels vir bosluise, wat weer ‘n agtpootige dier is. Die aktief moet ook hier suksesvolle nawerking toon.
  • Die produk moet veilig vir mens en dier, teen enige huishoudelike pes gebruik kan word.

pyrethrum-250x250

  1. Kermerke van die aktief 
  • Breë spektrum: Die aktief bestaan uit ‘n groep molekulêre verbindings (bekend as esters) en het ‘n wye spektrum van doodmakende aktiwiteit op insekte as meeste ander produkte wat net ‘n enkele aktief het.
  • Die produk het ses (6) esters in sy natuurlik samestelling. Elke een van hierdie esters het ‘n doodmaak of ontwrigtingseffek op die teiken-insek. Dit beteken dat die produk die insek op 6 verskillende maniere kan doodmaak of ontwrig.
  • Esters ontwrig die sentrale senustelsel van kruipende en vlieënde insekte, deur hul normale senuaktiwiteite disfunksioneel te maak en te laat faal om sy natuurlike gedrag te openbaar. Soos om te kan hardloop of weg te vlieg. Hoër aktiwiteite stel die insek ook bloot aan meer van die aktief.
  • Vinnige werking: Die produk val die senustelsel van die insek aan en distort die normale senufunksies van die insek. Dit ontwrig sy normale lewensfunksies of maak die insek dood. Dit het nie ‘n onmiddelike effek op insekeiers of selfs larwes nie, weens die onaktiwiteit daarvan.
  • Omgewingsveilig: Die aktief word deur sonlig en ultravioletstrale afgebreek met geen residu nie.
  • Vrugte en groente-oeste: Daar is geen tydperkperk van onttrekking of interval nodig met die saamgestelde aktief nie. Voedsel kan onmiddelik gebruik word.
  • Alhoewel die produk ‘n aangename reuk het vir mense, het dit naas sy relatief vinnige doodmaak aksie, ‘n walgingsfaktor vir insekte. Hul hou nie van die reuk van die produk nie en wil dit vermy.
  • Dit kan veilig aangewend word op mens en dier waar vlieë hinder en pla, muskiete aktief is en ander skadelike insekte verkieslik die pad laat vat. Kan dus aangewend word vir jagters, veldbesoeke, babas, en troeteldiere.
  • Insekte soos miere word nie deur insektisiedes gewalg nie. Dit sal gewoonlik deur die produk loop. Hul neem gewoonlik die aktief met hul saam nes toe en roei oor tyd die hele nes en koningin met die bewegings uit. 
  • Veilig vir gebruike in Skole, Hospitale, Gastehuise, Hotelle, Kombuise en Ouetehuise: Die aktief laat geen skade en residu wat onveilig is vir mense nie.
  1. Reaksie by muskiete

By wyfiemuskiete veroorsaak die aktief en reuk daarvan abnormale gedrag. Verhoed dat hul hul natuurlike instink volg om ‘n bloedmaal by ‘n gasheer te soek en te neem. By hoër konsentrasies van die aktief verloor hul in totaliteit hul normale gedragspatrone.

Dit beteken ook dat hul hul skuilplekke verlaat van veiligheid en blootgestel kan word aan hoë dosisse van die aktief.

Pierre van Niekerk ©

 

 

 

Elektroniese Bosluis en vlooibeheer

Tickless Pet

Waarom alternatiewe produkte vir vlooi en bosluisbehandeling?
Met die beste van farmakologiese produkte beskikbaar in die handel, kan daar met veiligheid gesê word dat daar naas weerstandigheidsontwikkeling teen die aktiewe in die produkte, ‘n toename is in vlooi en bosluisprobleme.

Wanneer daar gekies moet word tussen die reeks van produkte beskikbaar, is daar ‘n verskeidenheid faktore wat ‘n rol speel.

Dit is;

• spoed
• tydperk van nawerking
• die aksie van die produk se molekule en aktief.
• Die invloed van water
• Ultravioletstrale

Bykomend, is daar klagtes van newe-effekte van byna al die produkte.

• Toediening of administrering
• Velskade en haarverlies
• Allergiese reaksies
• Blootstelling aan kinders en eienaars
• Ouderdom van diere
• Lewer en nierskade, ens.

Ander faktore van belang by besluitneming en keuse van produkte, is die volgende
• Spoed waarmee hierdie produk werk, veral as iets soos bosluise en vlooie op mens en dier parasiteer.
• Om diere wat reeds dermatitis het met farmakologiese produkte te behandel, waar die vel ontsteek is, is onkundige praktyk.
• Soms is dit weens die grootte van die dier, die ouderdom, die gesondheidstoestand van die dier, die tekorte van die eienaar self wat bosluis-en vlooibeheer onmoontlik maak.

Tekorte van topikale behandel.
Effektiewe werking word negatief beïnvloed met blootstelling aan;
• Water
• Sonlig en ultravioletstrale
• Grond en modder
• Gereelde bad en was met seepprodukte

Orale produkte
Enorme klagtes en bewerings word gemaak teen orale produkte. Ongeag die navorsing daarvan wat die teendeel probeer bewys. Seepprodukte en bad beïnvloed nie orale produkte se effektiewe nawerking nie.

Koste van sulke produkte maak dit ontoeganklik vir waarskynlik 80% van die troeteldierpopulasie. Orale produkte is ook bekend daarvoor dat hul n nawerking het op die gastro-intestinale van troeteldiere.

Laastens, slegs enkele produkte kan op diere gebruik word voor 8-14 weke, en by vlooi en bosluisinfestasies, is dit n probleem.

Bakterie en virusse, kieme tydens soog
Bakterie en ander kieme speel ‘n kritiese rol in soogdiere se algemene gesondheid in die soog stadium. Bakterie van die omgewing in die lug, slaapplekke, hul uriene en mis, versamel op die vel van die kleindier. Vlieë, naas vlooie en bosluise is ook n draer van miljoene bakterie na werpsels toe.

Die ma lek as ‘n reël haar kinders se uriene en faeces in. Dit is n belangrike gesondheidsaspek in die kleindier se gesondheidsontwikkeling. Miljoene kieme versamel in die mis en uriene. Met die opname daarvan deur die ma, ontwikkel sy teenliggaampies met haar immuunstelsel, wat sy dan tydens voeding en soog in haar melk vir haar kleintjies vrystel.

Sodoende word die immuunstelsel van die klein diertjies geaktiveer om suksesvol te reageer met die kieme van die omgewing en hul skadeloos te stel. Gegewe die ma het n gesonde en goeie immuunstelsel.

Kennis van bosluise en vlooie.
Ongeag die beste pogings bekend om bosluise en vlooie in ‘n erf, of omgewing te beheer, sal onvolwasse vlooie en bosluise altyd buite die grense ontwikkel en op vele maniere inkom. Dit is in al net n tydelike oplossing.

Bosluise kan in ‘n diapause ingaan en jare oorleef sonder n bloedmaal totdat omstandighede gunstig is.

Opsommend
‘n Horde voor en nadele kan gegee word vir en teen tradisionele vlooi en bosluisbeheerpraktyke. Naas voordele en nadele het dit ook vele beperkinge, soos hierbo kortliks beskrywe.

Tickless Pet”

Is ‘n toestel wat aan n nekband om die hond of kat se nek gesit word. Dit stel ultraklank impulse vry wat nie deur mens en dier gehoor kan word nie. Beïnvloed wel organismes soos vlooie en bosluise wat op ultraklank impulse en koolsuurgas hul prooi vind en volg. en hou die organismes vir ongeveer 1.5 meter weg.

Stel 40 kHz klank vry en hou die organismes ongeveer 1.5 meter weg van troeteldiere. Kos R450 by jou depot -eienaar en het n lewensduur van 12 maande.

Het dus geen nawerking op mens en sy troeteldiere nie, nie op klein kindertjies nie en ook nie op kleiner diere soos pasgebore babas nie.

Moet gesien word as n voorkomende beheermiddel en as ‘n Natuur en Ekologies vriendelike hulpmiddel wat geen skadelike kontra-indikasies het vir mens en dier nie.

Verdere inligting
http://www.tick-less.com/

Beskikbaar by Pierre@ Dieregesondheid Depots