Blommetjie Mieks 1

Die huidige Blommetjie Mieks, asook die verbeterde een wat hopelik vroeg in 2019 vrygestel gaan word, is ‘n 100% natuurlike blomolie mengsel van natuurlike chrysantium plante (wat in die volksmond as asters en soms asNamakwalandse daisies beskrywe word.

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Die plantgroepe in die crysantium familie word eers gedroog en vandaar word die olie uit die blom onttrek. Die plante wat hiervoor gekies word, is die Chrysanthemum cinerariifolium en Chrysanthemum coccineum. Die toksisiteit van die plante se olie verhoog namate die plante hoër geplant word op hoogte van seespieël.

Die aktief in die olie staan bekend as “Pyrethrum.” Die olie word dan in verskeie middels verwerk om hoogs suksesvolle natuurlike vlieg en insekbeheer te bewerkstellig.

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Vrystelling in sommige lande

Natuurlike pyrehrum het ‘n baie lae toksisiteit. Word in lande soos Australië en Swede vrygestel van die term wat dit as giftig vir mens en dier beskrywe.

Pyrethrum word wêreldwyd ook verkies as Produk Nr 1 by botaniste en omgewingsbewaarders. By mense wat organiese groente groei vir persoonlike gebruik en, natuurlike beheermiddels met lae tot geen skadelike residu wil gebruik.

Ook omdat natuurlike pyrethrum ‘n baie lae toksisteit by warmbloedige soos hul troeteldiere en wilde voëls.

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Lang nawerking

Pyrethrum het NIE ‘n lang doodmaak nawerking nie. Dit word omdat dit ‘n natuurlike plantolie produk is, natuurlik deur die son se ultravioletstrale afgebreek na ‘n organiese nul toe.  Laat geen skade in die grond of op die dier na nie. Het by afbreking ook geen residu-waardes nie.

Alhoewel meeste mense produkte wil hê met lang nawerking, is natuurlike pyrethrum se kortwerkende voordeel hierin dat insekte en teikenspesies peste nie weerstandigheid daarteen kan opbou nie. Hul vrek elke keer as hul daaraan blootgestel word.

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Ses Esters

Natuurlike Pyrethrum bevat ook ses esters. In kort beteken dit dat dit insekte wat hieraan blootgestel word, op ses verskillende maniere doodgemaak word. En, voor die oningeligte persoon hom weer morsdood skrik oor ‘n ester, laat my toe om dit in Engels te plaas sodat hul dit onafhanklik kan gaan opsoek. Daar is letterik derduisende esters.

An ester : “The odors of flowers and the odors and flavors of fresh fruits are a result of a complex mixture of many chemical compounds, but one of the major constituents is a type of compound called an ester. An ester is a compound formed from the reaction between a carboxylic acid and an alcohol with the loss of the water molecule.”

Esters word in warmbloedige diere soos mense, varke, honde, katte en voëls se spysverteringstelsels baie vinnig gehidroliseer na ‘n niksseggende afvalproduk. Met geen skade of nagevolge van ‘n soort nie. Word gewoon deur die liggaam skadeloos uitgeskei.

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Opsommend

Pyrethrum het ‘n baie lang geskiedenis van veiligheid by mens en dier. Die ander groepe van pestisiedes het nie. Dit is nie die plek en of taak om groepe met mekaar te vergeyk om die waarde van pyretrum bokant ander produkte plaas nie. Die ingeligte en persoon wat omgee en lees sal dit self doen en oplees en opsoek en daaop die ingeligte besluit neem.

Short Residual Activity: Pyrethrum is quickly broken down by sunlight therefore a limited time span of low mammalian toxicity usually associated with certain other classes of persistent insecticides.

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Sensitiewe plekke soos skole, kleuterskole, hospitale, ouetehuise kan pyrethrum produkte met groot veilgheid gebruik omdat dit geen swaar reuke het nie, nie aan inwonders skade doen nie en nie allergiese reaksies veroorsaak by sensitiewe kinders, kankerpasiente easook oumense nie.

Blommetjie mieks

  • Is 100% natuurlik en natuurlike plantolies wat as aktief aangebeid word.
  • Dit het n baie vinnige reaksie. Die aktief van die blomolie ontwrig die insek se senustelsel wat op hul beurt na n string reaksies waarby die senuwees betrokke is, die dier ontwring en sy dood veroorsaak.
  • Die senustelsel is betrokke by bloedvloei, spysvertering, asemhaling, hartklop, spysvertering van die insek.
  • Pyrethrum het nie die onmiddelike doodskop en doodmaak reaksie soos by gif wat in blikke verkoop word nie. Vlieg moet daarop sit om van die gif deur die suiers op sy pote op te neem en dan oombikke later disgoriënteerd raak en natuurlik elders vrek.
  • Pyrethrum lok veral muskiete vanuit hul wegkruipplekke en het n hormoon-ontwrigtingseffek by wyfie muskiete. Dit blyk dat hul so deurmekaar raak dat hul onnatuurlik optree en nie bloedmaal soek nie.
  • Insekte vrek natuurlik baie gou met blootstelling aan pyrethrum.
  • Dit blyk dat die onnatuurlike gedrag by muskiete is weens verlamming wat intree by die monddele wat tot verhondering en vrekte lei.
  • Natuurlike pyrethrum het ook ‘n walgingseffek vir insekte.
  • Alhoewel dit vir die menslike sintuie aangenaam ruik weens die ester effek wat binne die Blommetjie mieks mengsel ingebied is.

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Natuurlike pyrethrum kan natuurlik baie spesifiek aangewend word.

  • Op plante
  • Word wêreldwyd op mense en diere gebruik
  • Op oppervlaktes wat nie direkte sonlig ontvang nie
  • By die voorbereiding van teetafels waar koek en soetgoed aanloklik is
  • Op kombuise se werksoppervlaktes waar vlieë peste is
  • By slaghuise waar daar met vleis gewerk word
  • By melkerye se verkoopspunte
  • Op kalwers in kalwerhokke

Dit word juis gebruik omdat dit in die Blommetjiemieks formaat by geen of weglaatbare giftige blootstelling aan mens en dier se onmiddelike omgewing kan meebring en omdat dit bewysbaar ‘n weglaatbare toksisiteit het vir soogdiere.

Anders dan sintetiese piretroide, wat ‘n produk is wat vanuit natuurlike pyrethrum ontwikkel is, is weerstandigheid van Blommetjie Mieks by teikeninsekte pyrethrum nie ‘n probleem of moontlikheid nie weens sy kort nawerking.

 

Akademiese Agtergrond Studie oor Blommetjie Mieks I en II SE samestelling.

1. Introduction

Pyrethrum refers to the Pyrethrum daisy (Chrysanthemum cinerariifolium) from which the insecticidal compound is extracted. Also nicknamed Dalmatian chrysanthemum, this perennial daisy is loaded with chemicals called pyrethrins that are toxic to insects.

Pyrethrum was a genus of several Old World plants now classified as Chrysanthemum or Tanacetum which are cultivated as ornamentals for their showy flower heads. Pyrethrum continues to be used as a common name for plants formerly included in the genus Pyrethrum

The powdered flower heads of T. coccineum and C. cinerariifolium are chief sources of the insecticide. The active substances in pyrethrums are contact poisons for insects and cold-blooded vertebrates. The concentrations of pyrethrum powder used in insecticides are nontoxic to plants, birds, and mammals; therefore, these insecticides find wide use in household and livestock sprays as well as in dusts for edible plants.

Naturally derived pyrethrin insecticides are an important means of chemical control in organic farming. Synthetic pyrethrin compounds, known as pyrethroids, have been developed. Both synthetic and non-synthetic pyrethrins can accumulate in water and wetland sediments and are toxic to fish and aquatic invertebrates. – The Editors of Encyclopedia Britannica

Ocular side effects: Local ophthalmic use or exposure

  • Keratitis
  • Irritative conjunctivitis
  • Allergic conjunctivitis
  • Corneal abrasions.

Clinical significance: From the WHO and the National Registry, there are 54 reports of keratitis and 19 reports of irritative conjunctivitis from topical use of pyrethrum, which presumably got into the eye of the patients inadvertently. From the available data, all adverse reactions were immediate and resolved after 1–2 days after discontinuation of the product.

Clinical Ocular Toxicology | ScienceDirect
2. Pyrethrins: Pyrethrin I, II, cinerin I, II, jasmolin I, II.

  • Pyrethrum extract is obtained from the flower heads of Chrysanthemum cinerariaefolium and consists of a mixture of esters.
  • The esters are unstable in the presence of ultraviolet light and are rapidly metabolized and inactivated by both insects and mammals.
  • The inclusion of mixed-function oxidase inhibitors (such as PBO) in pyrethrin formulations enhances their longevity and insecticidal efficacy.

Mammalian sensitivity to pyrethrum exposure

  • Selective toxicity of the pyrethroids has traditionally been attributed to differences in metabolism between arthropods and mammals
  • Experimental evidence suggests that mammalian nerves have reduced sensitivity of around 250-fold (lower intrinsic sensitivity (10×) and lower sensitivity at mammalian body temperature (5×) combined with faster recovery time (5×)) which must be multiplied by a more rapid detoxification (9×)

The reduced sensitivity is related to enzyme activity and body size differences, which bring a total differential reduced sensitivity of approximately 2000 times.

Stephen W Page, in Small Animal Clinical Pharmacology (Second Edition), 2008, https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/book/9781416046738

3. Mechanism of action

  • Pyrethrins have rapid knockdown activity against susceptible flying insects and fleas and a separate delayed lethal effect.
  • Knockdown effects are almost immediate and thought to be due to excessive sensory hyperactivity of the peripheral nervous system.
  • Resistance to this action is due to selection of a target site with altered amino acid sequence and insensitive to pyrethrin binding.
  • The pyrethroids slow the kinetics of both opening and closing of individual sodium channels, resulting in delayed and prolonged ion channel opening.
  • This causes prolongation of the whole-cell sodium current during a depolarizing pulse and marked slowing of the tail sodium current upon repolarization.
  • Pyrethroids also cause a shift of the activation voltage in the direction of hyperpolarization.
  • These changes in sodium channel kinetics lead to membrane depolarization and an increase in depolarizing after-potential.
  • The latter reaches the threshold for excitation, causing repetitive after-discharges.
  • The membrane depolarization of sensory neurons increases discharge frequency and that of nerve terminals increases the release of transmitter and the frequency of spontaneous miniature postsynaptic potentials.

    4. Neurotoxicity of Pyrethrins and Pyrethroid Insecticide

Pyrethrum is the product prepared from ground flowers of Chrysanthemum species by extraction with organic solvents. It consists of six related esters derived from two acids and three alcohols.

  • The proportion of each varies depending upon the strain of flower, conditions of culture, and method of extraction and concentration (O’Brien 1967; Ray 1991).
  • Pyrethrins decompose rapidly in light to inactive compounds. They are liquids at room temperature, are insoluble in water but are soluble in many organic solvents. They undergo rapid hydrolysis in water, particularly in the presence of acid or alkali.
  • They are primarily contact poisons and penetrate chitin rapidly. They have almost no activity when given orally because they are so readily hydrolyzed to inactive products.
  • Pyrethroids are synthetic compounds that resemble pyrethrins in insecticidal activity but are chemically much more stable. Their chemistry is complex and has been reviewed by Ray (1991).

5. Pyrethrum background

Also known as Dalmatian (or, inaccurately, Persian) insect powder, represents the dried flowers of the daisy-like herbaceous perennial Tanacetum (Chrysanthemum) cinerariaefolium (Compositae) growing naturally along the east coast of the Adriatic Sea.

It is the source of the economically most important botanical insecticides (Casida and Quistad, 1995a). The insecticidal properties of the flowers were discovered in Dalmatia, where the first commercial production of the plant began in 1840. The crop was later introduced in Japan, Kenya, Tanzania, China, Ecuador, New Guinea, Australia, Tasmania, and the United States. Since the early 1940s, the major producer of pyrethrum and pyrethrum extract has been Kenya providing about two-thirds of the world’s production.
The insecticidal ingredients are called pyrethrins; they accumulate in the achenes of the flower heads and amount to 1–2% of the dried flower. The harvesting of flowers is labor intensive, but efforts to produce pyrethrins in tissue cultures on a large scale have not been fruitful (Jovetić and de Gooijer, 1995).

6. Characteristics

The key structural features of pyrethrins were recognized by Staudinger and Ruzicka in 1924 and the structures of all six insecticidal esters were clarified in the subsequent decades (reviewed by Crombie, 1995; Elliott and Janes, 1973; Matsui and Yamamoto, 1971).

The exceptional biological properties and the lack of stability of the natural pyrethrins prompted many groups to find more stable synthetic analogs and these efforts eventually led to the development of numerous pyrethroid insecticides having a broad activity spectrum, excellent selectivity, and improved field stability (Elliott, 1996; Henrick, 1995).

Mammalian toxicity studies as well as the experience of use for over a century demonstrate that pyrethrins are among the safest insecticides.

István Ujváry, in Hayes’ Handbook of Pesticide Toxicology (Third Edition), 2010; Pest Control Agents from Natural Products – ScienceDirect

7. Pyrethrins and Pyrethroids

  • Pyrethrum is one of the oldest natural insecticides in use in the world today, and it has one of the best safety records of all insecticides.
  • It is a mixture of several esters, called pyrethrins, which are extracted from flowers belonging to the genus Chrysanthemum.
  • Natural pyrethrins are unstable to light and are therefore unsuitable for residual application, particularly in agriculture.
  • This led to the development of several classes of related synthetic compounds which have a higher stability to light and a high insecticidal activity. They are known as pyrethroids.
  • In general, pyrethroids can be toxicologicaly divided into two classes on the basis of signs of toxicity: those causing mainly tremor and prostration (T syndrome) and
    those causing choreoathetosis and salivation (CS syndrome).
  • For both groups, the main biological activity is mediated through the effect on sodium channels along the axon membrane of the nerves, in both insects and mammals.
  • The effect on the sodium-exchange disturbance is fully reversible, the duration of which is different for the two classes of pyrethroids: compounds belonging to the group causing the T syndrome produce a considerably shorter effect on the sodium ‘gate’ openings than those belonging to the CS group.
  • Being highly lipophilic, pyrethroids readily pass through cell membranes and are absorbed into the body by all routes following exposure.
  • However, the ratio of the toxic dose by the oral route to that of intravenous injection is very high; this is because of rapid detoxification, mainly by cleaving of the ester bond by esterases.
  • Present-day evidence indicates that doses of a pyrethroid likely to be encountered both in the workplace and through food consumption would not lead to any serious untoward effects, although reversible transient effects on the skin may be recorded and may be used as a warning response of inadvertent exposure.

R. Pleština, in Encyclopedia of Food Sciences and Nutrition (Second Edition), 2003 PESTICIDES AND HERBICIDES | Types of Pesticide – ScienceDirect

8. Toxicology and Human Environments: Pyrethrum

  • The insecticidal extract of the pyrethrum flower Pyrethrum (Chrysanthemum cinerariaefolium) is known as pyrethrins.
  • Of the six insecticidal constituents of the extract of the pyrethrum flowers Pyrethrum (Chrysanthemum) cinerariae (folium), pyrethrins I and II are most prominent, existing in the ratio 71:21:7 for pyrethrin (I and II), cinerin (I and II), and jasmolin (I and II).
  • Pyrethrins are potent, non-systemic, contact insecticides, causing rapid paralysis or knockdown and death at a later stage in a variety of insects.
  • They exhibit low vertebrate toxicity with an acute oral LD50 in rats of 1.2 g/kg.
    The mechanism of action involves modification of nerve membrane Na+ channels. Opening and closing of the Na+ channel is slowed, resulting in increased Na+ permeability and depolarization leading to hyperexcitability.

    Ernest Hodgson, in Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science, 2012, Toxins and Venoms – ScienceDirect

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MANGO WURMS

“Mango wurms” onstaan van die tumbuvlieg (in die volksmond bekend as die mangovlieg) en die wetenskaplike naam is Cordylobia anthropohaga. Die vroulike vlieg lê haar eiers óf op droë sand wat met urine en ontlasting besmet is óf op babadoeke of klere/materiaal wat nie behoorlik gewas is nie (baie lief vir katoen). Die vlieg kan ook eiers op die vel lê en die maaiers beweeg dan onder die vel in.

Die eiers word in die skaduwee gelê, die larwes broei binne een tot drie dae uit en begin dan dadelik soek na ‘n gasheer. Die larwe grawe vinnig deur die vel met sterk hakies by sy mond en veroorsaak ‘n pitseer. Net sy luggaatjies (twee swart kolletjies) is oop sodat hy kan asem kry.

Hy teer op weefsel en vervel drie keer, dan klim hy uit, val op die grond en word binne 24 uur ‘n papie. ‘n Manier om die eiertjies dood te maak, is om al jou wasgoed met ‘n warm strykyster te stryk of in ‘n tuimeldroër te gooi. Die larwe kan binne minder as twee weke sowat 15mm lank word onder die vel.

Vandat die larwe in die vel begin ontwikkel jeuk dit ontsaglik baie. Dis volop in die laeveld hierdie tyd van die jaar. Jy sal sien jou hond hou daarvan as jy dit uitdruk omdat dit so vreeslik jeuk. Hy sal miskien bietjie tjank as jy te hard druk, maar dis gewoonlik nie nodig nie. Druk agter die knop. Volgens Annetjie Visser het hulle baie daarmee te doen gehad in die Tzaneen area en dit tot op hul beeste gevind.

In Januarie 2015 het hierdie grillerige vlieglarwes wat hul onder die mens se vel tuismaak, ‘n hele paar Pretorianers groot laat skrik, volgens A. Pienaar van Die Beeld. Die baie reën en warm weer het veroorsaak dat heelwat meer mense as vorige jare by dokters of ongevalle-afdelings van hospitale opgedaag met ‘n vreemde uitslag op hul vel, onwetend dat hulle die tumbuvlieg se larwes in hulle saamdra. Prof. Erik Holm, ‘n entomoloog, het gesê die vlieg kom algemeen in die Laeveld voor.

In Noordwes was daar teen middel Januarie 2015 minstens 150 gevalle aangemeld. ‘n Suster by die Medicross-kliniek in Pretoria-Noord het gesê hulle het in 2015 twee tot vyf mense per week gesien, teenoor geen gevalle die vorige jaar.

‘n Baba moes teater toe sodat die larwes onder narkose verwyder kon word. “Dit het gelyk soos waterpokkies. Die lyfie was oortrek daarvan,” het die suster gesê. Nog ‘n suster van die Medicross-kliniek in Gezina het gesê hulle het drie gevalle gehad teenoor net een die hele vorige jaar. “By twee pasiënte het ons twee vettes uitgehaal en by die derde ‘n klomp klein larwetjies, so kopspeld-grootte.” Daar was ook gevalle in die ooste van Pretoria, onder meer in Garsfontein en Faerie Glen.

Dr. Roelof Loxton, ‘n mikrobioloog van die Lancet-laboratorium in Pretoria, het gesê hulle het minstens agt oproepe binne 2 maande ontvang, onder meer van dokters wat wil weet hoe om die pasiënte te behandel.

“Die vlieg lê sy eiertjies op die wasgoedlyn en hulle broei uit weens die mens of dier se liggaamshitte. Dit is nie gevaarlik nie en beslis nie omdat mense ‘vuil’ lewe nie.” Volgens Loxton was daar meer gevalle in 2015 as vorige jare. ‘n Manier om die eiertjies dood te maak, is om die wasgoed met ‘n warm strykyster te stryk of in ‘n tuimeldroër te gooi. Die larwe kan binne minder as twee weke sowat 15mm lank word onder jou vel.

Raak só ontslae daarvan:

  • ‘n Manier om die eiertjies dood te maak, is om die wasgoed met ‘n warm strykyster te stryk of in ‘n tuimeldroër te gooi. Die larwe kan binne minder as twee weke sowat 15mm lank word onder jou vel.
  • Die pitseer kan behandel word met vloeibare medisinale paraffien. Deur dit daaroor te smeer, moet die larwe uitkruip vir asem en sal jy dit kan uitdruk. Olyfolie of Vaseline kan ook gebruik word om die larwe te forseer om uit te kom.

Pierre van Niekerk © 2016