General Reference Study in Bovine Colostrum

29684154_361882480980590_4239102364816723041_n

  1. What is Colostrum
  • Nature’s most perfect or complete food.
  • Contains necessary growth factors, antibodies, lactoferrin and information carrying peptides
  • Designed to passively transfer signal bio-chemicals to newborn.
  • Nature’s way of protecting the newborn from harmful micro-organisms after birth.

29572771_1328728530560567_7488209433763865950_n

  1. Main Components in Colostrum

hqdefault (1)

  1. Immune Factors – antibodies
  • Immunoglobulin type G (IgG1)
  • Immunoglobulin type G (IgG2)
  • Immunoglobulin type A (IgA)
  • Immunoglobulin type M (IgM)
  • Immunoglobulin type D (IgD)
  • Immunoglobulin type E (IgE)

Healthy 4Life 040

  1. Growth hormone (GH)

32913826_1944505335589045_697537967731769344_n (1)

  1. Enzymes in Colostrum
  • Lacto peroxidase thiocyanate: Anti-microbial
  • Lactoferrin: Regulate iron adsorption 20 times more concentrated in colostrum than milk, 4g/l, 1.0% in whole colostrum powder
  • Transferrin: Binds and transports iron
  • Lysosome: A hydrolyzing agent and immune system booster capable of destroying bacteria and viruses on contact.
  • Xanthine Oxidase: Oxidizes bacteria through their ability to release hydrogen peroxide
  • Typsin and Protease Inhibitors (glycoproteins): Prevent the destruction of immune and growth factors from being broken down the GI tract, treatment of ulcers.
  • Lactalbumin: Raises brain serotonin levels, improves mood under stress
  1. Cytokines or Immune regulators in Colostrum
  • Leukocytes: Stimulate the production of interferon, which slows viral reproduction, and penetration of cell walls.
  • Lymphokines: Along with Interleukin-1,6, Gamma, Beta, are thought to be highly effective antiviral immune substance.
  • Interleukins: Regulate the duration and intensity of the immune response, and are responsible for cell to cell communication, can boost T-cell activity and the production of immunoglobulins.
  1. Nutritional Fats in Colostrum
  • Milk Fat Globule Membrane: Contains compounds, such as sphingomyelin, and other phospholipids that assist in development of the mucosal barrier, liver function, brain function, and immune function
  • Nutritional – Carbohydrates:
  • Lacto-oligosaccharides: Promote growth of good bacteria in the intestine
  • Sialyloligosaccharides and sialylglycoconjugates: Have an immune function in the intestine. Involved in brain and nerve development, and in cell to cell recognition.
  1. Nutritional – Vitamins and Other Nutrients in Colostrum
  • Vitamin B6
  • Vitamin B12
  • Vitamin E
  • Vitamin A (from carotene)
  • Vitamin C
  • Thiamin (Vitamin B1)
  • Folic Acid
  • Pantothenic Acid
  • Riboflavin (Vitamin B2)
  • Beta-carotene
  • Glycoconjugates
  • Glycogen
  • Retinoic Acid
  1. Nutritional Minerals in Colostrum
  • Calcium
  • Chromium
  • Iron
  • Magnesium
  • Phosphorus
  • Potassium
  • Sodium
  • Zinc
  1. What are Proline-Rich Polypeptides?
  • Are short chain peptides (500-5000MW) with a high concentration of the amino acid Proline.
  • Also called: info-peptides, info-proteins, cytokine precursors, or immune-modulators.
  • Support the regulation of the thymus, the gland responsible for the normal development of immunologic function in the body.
  • Whole Colostrum Powder is rich in PRPs.
  • Important in modulating immunity, cytokine levels, inhibiting viral infection of cells.
  • Application field – immunotherapy, anti-viral, anti-allergy, anti-inflammatory, and restores normal cell function.
  1. Most Common Cytokines Influenced by Proline Rich Peptides
  • Interleukin type-1
  • Interleukin type-4
  • Interleukin type-6
  • Interleukin type-10
  • Interleukin type-13
  • Interleukin type-14
  • Beta-interferon (IFN-beta)*
  • Interferon-alpha (TFN-alpha)*
  • Interferon-gamma
  1. Beta-interferon (IFN-beta) cytokine
  • AIDS/HIV – 33 references
  • Acute Viral Infections – 35 references
  • Anti-inflammatory – 15 references
  • Cancer – 6 references
  • MW 20,000, 166 amino acids
  1. Some PRPs stimulate the production of Beta-Interferon, a cytokine that inhibits viral infection of cells (anti-inflammatory cytokine (Inglot, A.D. et at., Arch Immunol Ther Exp (Wasz), 1996, 44(4):215-224)
  • The activity of T suppressor cells elicited by several stimuli is stimulated also by IFN-beta.
  • IFN-beta enhances the synthesis of the low affinity IgE receptor CD-23.
  • In activated monocytes IFN-beta induces the synthesis of neopterin
  • IFN-beta shows antiproliferative activity against a number of cell lines established from solid tumors.
  • IFN-beta stimulates the activity of Natural Killer cells and hence also antibody-dependent cytotoxicity.
  • The activity of T suppressor cells elicited by several stimuli is stimulated also by IFN-beta.
  • Some studies suggest that IFN-beta tends to prevent disease activity in patients with multiple sclerosis – Panitch HS Interferons in multiple sclerosis. A review of the evidence. Drugs 44: 946-62 (1992);
  • IFN-beta in combination with IFN-alpha has been used in the treatment of chronic active hepatitis B and appears to be most promising if the disease has not lasted longer than 5 years.
  • The antiviral activity of IFN-beta is demonstrated also in the treatment of severe childhood viral encephalitis. – Capalbo M et al., Ital. Journal of Gastroenterol. 24: 203-5 (1992); Kagawa T et al A pilot study of long-term weekly interferon-beta administration for chronic hepatitis B. American Journal of Gastroenterol. 88: 212-6 (1993)
  1. TNF-alpha (tumor necrosis factor – alpha) cytokine
  • Anti-inflammatory – 15 references
  • Anti-Oxidant Properties – 8 references
  • Athletic Performance – 37 references
  • Bacterial Infection – 42 references
  • Cancer – 6 references
  • Diabetes – 5 references
  • Heart disease – 3 references
  • Immune support – 33 references
  • MW 26,000
  1. TNF-alpha shows a wide spectrum of biological activities.
  • It causes cytolysis and cytostasis of many tumor cell lines in vitro.
  • The factor induces hemorrhagic necrosis of transplanted tumors (Apoptosis). Within hours after taking, TNF-alpha leads to the destruction of small blood vessels within malignant tumors.
  • MW 26,000
  • TNF-alpha shows a wide spectrum of biological activities.
  • It causes cytolysis and cytostasis of many tumor cell lines in vitro.
  • The factor induces haemorrhagic necrosis of transplanted tumors (Apoptosis). Within hours after taking, TNF-alpha leads to the destruction of small blood vessels within malignant tumors.
  • Single- and multiple-dose phase I studies have confirmed that TNF-alpha can be administered safely to patients with anticancer effect, without concurrent serious toxicities such as shock and cachexia: Cordingley FT et al Tumor necrosis factor as an autocrine tumor growth factor for chronic B cell malignancies. Lancet I: 969-71 (1988);
  • The combined use of TNF-alpha and cytotoxic or immune modulatory agents, particularly IFN-gamma and possibly IL-2, may be of advantage in the treatment of some tumors.
  • TNF-alpha can be used to increase the aggressiveness of lymphokine (activated killer cells) – Gifford GE and Duckworth DH Introduction to TNF and related lymphokines. Biotherapy 3: 103-11 (1991);
  • Since TNF-alpha is found in the synovial fluid of patients suffering from arthritis, these inhibitors may be helpful in ameliorating the disease and this has been shown to be the case in animal models of severe collagen induced arthritis, and also the severe consequences of ‘Systemic inflammatory Response Syndrome’.
  • TNF-alpha can be used to increase the aggressiveness of lymphokine (activated killer cells) – Gifford GE and Duckworth DH Introduction to TNF and related lymphokines. Biotherapy 3: 103-11 (1991);
  • Since TNF-alpha is found in the synovial fluid of patients suffering from arthritis, these inhibitors may be helpful in ameliorating the disease and this has been shown to be the case in animal models of severe collagen induced arthritis, and also the severe consequences of ‘Systemic inflammatory Response Syndrome’. Larrick JW and Wright SC Cytotoxic mechanism of tumor necrosis factor-alpha. FASEB Journal 4: 3215-32 (1990)
  • One case of severe therapy-resistant Morbus Crohn has been treated with monoclonal antibodies directed against TNF-alpha. Treatment has been reported to have resulted in a complete remission lasting for three months: Derkx B et al Tumor necrosis factor antibody treatment in Crohn’s disease. Lancet 342: 173-4 (1993)
  1. Colostrum and gastric digestion
  • Colostrum is largely protein – how does it survive the adult gastro-intestinal tract without being digested?
  • Both Kelly 12 and Roos 13 have demonstrated that a portion of the antibodies do survive the gastro-intestinal tract, can be measured in the faecal stool and can be shown to still be active. In the case of Kelly, they demonstrated that 4% of the total immunoglobulin was recovered in the stool and that it was still active against Clostridium difficile while Roos demonstrated that around 19% of the total immunoglobulin ingested survived.
  1. Summary of Clinicals

Scientific research in to the benefits of colostrum, particularly with adults, is increasing our knowledge and understanding of the effectiveness, on the adult intestinal tract, of this natural substance and how colostrum can be co-administered with conventional pharmaceuticals to mitigate the side effects of common drugs 2,3,9.

The research and clinical studies help us to understand how colostrum, when taken regularly, acts as a preventive from some common ailments such as upper respiratory tract infections, influenza and pathogenic associated diarrhoea 2,7,8,9,10.

  • Colostrum has been the subject of numerous clinical studies showing efficacy in:
  • Mitigating side effects of NSAIDS
  • Prevention of upper respiratory tract infections
  • Prevention of diarrhoea
  • More effective than flu vaccine in preventing influenza
  • In addition, the evidence for colostral components for AIDS, auto-immune diseases, stem cell proliferation and activation, regenerative medicine and anti-ageing is constantly being published.
  1. COLOSTRUM has been shown in clinical studies to;
  • Reduce the incidence of influenza episodes by more than 3 times when compared flu vaccine10;
  • Protect against side effects of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)3
  • as a novel treatment for ulcerative distal colitis 6
  • for the treatment of diarrhoeal diseases 7
  • and recurrent diarrhoea associated with antibiotic treatment and overuse9
  • Reduce the incidence of upper respiratory tract infections in healthy children and adults 8,9.
  1. Diarrhoea and colostrum

The PRIDE study, conducted in India investigated the effect of a daily dose of colostrum on 605 children with recurrent episodes of diarrhoea or upper respiratory tract infections (URTI’s). Respiratory disease in children and old people is a common and major cause of morbidity. Diarrhoea is also a major cause of death in children under 5 in developing countries with recurrent diarrhoea affecting approximately 20% of this population.

  1. Upper Respiratory Tract Infections
  • Acute URTI’s and recurrent diarrhoea present the physician or paediatrician with complex treatment issues. The most successful treatment being the use of antibiotics to remove the infections. However, the over prescription of antibiotics can lead to other and more significant problems within communities, such as antibiotic resistance.
  • The results of the PRIDE study showed that supplementation with colostrum, up to 3 grams per day, per child, reduced URTI’s episodes by 91.2% and diarrhoeal episodes by 86.6% after twelve weeks. What was more significant was that paediatrician monitoring the children reported a high to average improvement in overall well-being of 96%.
  • Colostrum from cows was shown be a highly effective prophylactic treatment for URTI’s and diarrhoea reducing both episodes and hospitalisations. Other researchers, such as Brinkworth et al 8, have also reported reductions in URTI’s amongst a group of 174 healthy adult subjects.
  • The major finding of this study showed a significantly lesser portion of subjects taking colostrum reported URTI’s than those in the control group.
  1. Influenza and colostrum
  • URTI’s are commonly associated with colds and influenza events. One study in particular, “The Epidemiological Study in San Valentino” 10, investigated the relationship between colostrum supplementation and influenza protection compared to the commercially available influenza vaccine. Of particular interest was a group of 65 very high-risk cardiovascular subjects with prophylaxis.
  • Colostrum supplementation continued over a two-month period with 400mg of colostrum administered daily. Results of flu episodes and hospitalisations were analysed after three months of treatment. It was found that there were a total 41 episodes in the control group, compared to 57 episodes in the group that received the commercially available flu vaccination. There were a total of 13 reported episodes in the group receiving the colostrum supplement of 400mg per day and 14 episodes in the test group that received the colostrum on a daily basis and had also received the commercially available flu vaccination.
  • The results of the San Valentino study clearly demonstrated that colostrum supplementation in both healthy subjects and high-risk cardiovascular patients is at least 3 times more effective at preventing influenza episodes than a commercially available influenza vaccine. More importantly it showed that colostrum was an acceptable preventive for high-risk cardiovascular patients with prophylaxis.
  1. NSAID Toxicity (Non-Steroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs) and colostrum
  • Colostrum has also been shown to be an effective treatment to mitigate the effects on common drugs on the intestinal epithelial surface. While non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) are amongst the most effective treatments for musculoskeletal injuries their chronic administration can result in severe gastric and intestinal damage.
  • The result is increased intestinal permeability, which can also be very hard for a physician to diagnose. Playford et al 3 and Khan et al 6, proposed that bovine colostrum, because of its unique composition, including naturally occurring growth factors may be a suitable treatment for NSAID induced intestinal permeability and ulceration.
  1. Distal Colitis and colostrum
  • It was found that in healthy subjects where indomethacin was administered without colostrum supplementation intestinal permeability increased significantly, whereas in the subjects who undertook colostrum supplementation and indomethacin treatment there was no significant increase in intestinal permeability.
  • Khan et al on the other hand found that when colostrum was administered as an enema for the treatment of distal colitis the group receiving the colostrum showed a significant reduction in the mean symptom score compared to the control group and histological score improved in 62.5% of the test subjects.
  1. Antifungal Activity and colostrum
  • One of the most common factors that predispose one to invasive Candida spp. infections is immunosuppression, usually as a result of chemotherapy.
  • Anti-cancer chemotherapy causes neutropenia and damage to the GI mucosa, favouring invasive Candida infections
  • Prolonged use of antibiotics eliminates the host’s competing bacterial microflora, allowing Candida to grow unchecked.
  • Adherence to host cells prevents clearance by the host.
  • Colostrum has been shown to reduce adherence of Candida* K. Harfoot, MSc thesis, University of Waikato, 2005.
  1. A combination of factors causes pathogenic effect of C. Albicans including:
  • Enzymes produced by C. Albicans
  • Morphogenesis and phenotype switching
  • Persorption of yeast cells on the gut mucosa into inner tissues
  • Induced phagocytosis by human oesophageal cells
  • Components in colostrum interfere with a number of these mechanisms reducing adherence
  1. In General
  • COLOSTRUM, is a highly valued preventive and treatment for many human health conditions.
  • Clinical trials prove the effectiveness of colostrum
  • Daily colostrum supplementation has the power to alter the gastrointestinal environment so it remains healthy and can deal with the effects of our daily lives
  • Colostrum when taken daily is an effective and novel preventive for everyday sickness and disease and supplementation improves general health and wellness in people of all ages.

References

  1. http://www.colplus.com
  2. Kelly GS, A Bovine Colostrum, A review of Clinical Uses; Alt Med Review; 8,4; 2003; 378 – 394
  3. Playford RJ, et al; Co-administration of the health food supplement, bovine colostrum, reduces the acute non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug-induced increase in intestinal permeability; Clin Sci; 100; 2001; 627-633
  4. Pakkanen R, et al; Review Paper, Growth Factors and Antimicrobial Factors of Bovine Colostrum; Int Dairy J; 7; 1997; 285-297
  5. Mehra R, et al; Review, Milk immunoglobulins for health promotion; Int Dairy J; 2006
  6. Kan Z, et al; Use of the ‘nutriceutical’ bovine colostrum, for the treatment of distal colitis: results from an initial study; Ailment Pharmacol Ther; 16; 2002; 1917-1922
  7. Solomons NW; Modulation of the immune system and the response against pathogens with bovine colostrum concentrates; Euro J Clin Nutr; 56, suppl 3; 2002; 524-528
  8. Brinkworth GD, et al; Concentrated bovine colostrum protein supplementation reduces the incidence of self-reported symptoms of upper respiratory tract infection in adult males; Eur J Nutr; 42; 2003; 228 – 232
  9. Kamlesh P, et al; Pedimune in Recurrent Respiratory Infection and Diarrhoea – The Indian Experience- The PRIDE Study; Ind J Ped; 73; July 2006; 585 – 591
  10. Cesarone MR, et al; Prevention of Influenza Episodes with Colostrum Compared with Vaccination in Healthy and High-Risk Cardiovascular Subjects: The Epidemiologic Study in San Valentino; Clin app Throm / Hemo; 13, 2; April 2007; 130 – 136
  11. Carroll TJ, et al; High Pressure Processing of Bioactive Compositions; International Patent Number WO 2006/096074 A1; World Intellectual Property Organisation; 14 September, 2006.
  12. Kelly CP, et al; Survival of anti-Clostridium difficile bovine immunoglobulin concentrate in the human gastrointestinal tract; Antimicob Agents Chemother; 41; 1997; 236-241
  13. Roos N et al; 15N-labelled immunoglobulins from bovine colostrum are partially resistant to digestion in the human intestine; J Nutr; 125; 1995

 

Advertisements

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out /  Change )

Google photo

You are commenting using your Google account. Log Out /  Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )

Connecting to %s